OTHER COUNTRIES

Romania

From 2000

AFP. "Russia Expels Romanian Diplomat for Spying." 16 Aug. 2010. [http://www.afp.com]

According to an FSB spokesman on 16 August 2010, the first secretary of the political department at the Romanian embassy in Moscow, Gabriel Grecu, has been detained for spying, declared to be persona non grata, and ordered to leave the country within 48 hours.

Barna, Cristian. "From Profession to Discipline: The Development of Romanian Intelligence Studies." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 27, no. 4 (Winter 2014): 772-784.

Born, Hans, and Marina Caparini, eds. Democratic Control of Intelligence Services: Containing Rogue Elephants. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007.

According to Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), four Western (France, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and five former Soviet bloc (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Romania) countries are discussed; there are also articles discussing "the fundamental principles of oversight." Although this work "looks closely at what has been and what needs to be done, it does not address the practical problem of the qualifications of those doing the oversight."

Bruneau, Thomas C., and Steven C. Boraz, eds. Reforming Intelligence: Obstacles to Democratic Control and Effectiveness. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2007.

According to Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), this book's 13 chapters include "studies that discuss democratic control and effectiveness in three Western nations -- the United States, the United Kingdom, and France -- and seven new democracies -- Brazil, Taiwan, Argentina, Romania, South Africa, Russia, and the Philippines." Reforming Intelligence "is well documented, well written, and should serve as a foundation for studying this persistent problem."

Reddig, NIPQ 23.4 (Sep. 2007), calls this a "useful and thought provoking compendium of case studies," dealing with "the challenge of maintaining an intelligence establishment in a democratic framework." For Skarstedt, NIJ 1.1 (2009), "[a]ll of the authors provide outstanding analysis of their various subjects, and this book is a comprehensive study of intelligence reform and its problems. The commoin theme shared by all of the authors is that intelligence must be closely controlled."

Dumitru, Irena. "Building an Intelligence Culture From Within: The SRI and Romanian Society." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 27, no. 3 (Fall 2014): 569-589.

"[D]espite the clichés profoundly rooted in the collective mind, the [Romanian] intelligence services have made a necessary headway towards democracy by transparency and openness."

Filip, Valentin Fernand, and Remus Ioan Stefureac. "The Dilemmas of Linking Romanian Intelligence, Universities, and Think Tanks." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 24, no. 4 (Winter 2011-2012): 711-732.

"Our focus is on the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI...) and its attempts to reach out to national universities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Our findings emphasize the difficulties that arise in building an IC-academe-civil society relationship in Romania."

Iancu, Niculae, and Gabriela Tranciuc. "Planning and Strategy in Reforming Romania's SRI." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 25, no. 1 (Spring 2012): 111-129.

In its 20-year history, the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) "has progressively improved its activity, undergoing several stages of reform, while focused on structural and functional adjustments."

Maddrell, Paul. "The Opening of the State Security Archives of Central and Eastern Europe." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 27, no. 1 (Spring 2014): 1-26.

This article focuses on "the opening of the German and Romanian archives. The process is far advanced in Germany and much less so in Romania."

Maior, George Cristian. "Managing Change: The Romanian Intelligence Service in the 21st Century." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 217-239.

The author was appointed Director of the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) in 2006. Here, he argues that the easiest way to picture the story of the changes in Romanian intelligence "is to align the images of the Securitate in 1989 and the SRI in 2011 and compare a most oppressive mechanism, a security secret service in a totalitarian state, with a threat-based risk management organizattion, an accountable intelligence agency in a democratic regime."

Matei, Florina Cristiana (Cris).

1. "The Challenges of Intelligence Sharing in Romania." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 4 (Aug. 2009): 574-585.

"Romania has made major strides in developing an effective intelligence system through, among other measures, the development of specific coordination and cooperation mechanisms."

2. "The Legal Framework for Intelligence in Post-Communist Romania." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 22, no. 4 (Winter 2009): 667-698.

Romania has "progressively instituted a legal framework for the intelligence system, covering its mandate, coordination, control, oversight, accountability, and transparency.

3. "Reconciling Intelligence Effectiveness and Transparency: The Case of Romania." Strategic Insights 6, no. 3 (May 2007). [Available at: http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/]

The author "examines how Romania managed to reconcile and achieve a tradeoff between the two competing imperatives of operating intelligence in a democracy -- effectiveness and transparency. It analyzes what obstacles Romania overcame to accommodate the effectiveness of its post-communist intelligence system with the public need for information."

4. "Romania's Intelligence Community: From an Instrument of Dictatorship to Serving Democracy." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 20, no. 4 (Winter 2007): 629-660.

In the early 1990s, Romania replaced the Securitate with six intelligence agencies. These "agencies conduct domestic and foreign intelligence and counter or security intelligence, as well as military/police intelligence. They have human intelligence (HUMINT), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and imaging intelligence (IMINT) capabilities and can use undercover agents." Today, "Romanian intelligence has transitioned from a tool of the Communist dictatorship to a professional, transparent, and effective intelligence community, under democratic control."

5. And Thomas C. Bruneau. "Policymakers and Intelligence Reform in the New Democracies." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 24, no. 4 (Winter 2011-2012): 656-691.

The authors look at Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Poland, Romania, Spain, and Russia ("a stunning case of democratic regress"). In "at least four" of these countries -- "Poland, Brazil, Romania, and Spain -- the decisionmakers have managed to institutionalize agencies that are either transparent or effective, or both."

Matei, Mihaela, and Ionel Nitu. "Intelligence Analysis in Romania's SRI: The Critical 'Ps' -- People, Processes, Products." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 25, no. 4 (Winter 2012-2013): 700-726.

"Creating a new analytical culture will definitely take time, because during most of the post-Communist period, the main institutional focus has been directed toward intelligence results or 'Products' -- not to 'Processes,' and even less to 'People.'"

Moore, Molly. "Report Gives Details on CIA Prisons: NATO Pacts Exploited, European Probe Finds." Washington Post, 9 Jun. 2007, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to an investigative report completed for the Council of Europe and released in Paris on 8 June 2007, "[t]he CIA exploited NATO military agreements to help it run secret prisons in Poland and Romania where alleged terrorists were held in solitary confinement for months, shackled and subjected to other mental and physical torture.... Officials speaking on behalf of the CIA, NATO, Poland and Romania ... criticized the report's findings."

Nitzu, Ionel, ed. Intelligence Analyst Guide: A Digest for Junior Intelligence Analysts. Bucharest: National Intelligence Academy, Mihai Viteazul Publishing, 2012.

Peake, Studies 57.2, notes that the author, a Romanian intelligence analyst, "has assembled a collection of brief articles on aspects of intelligence analysis written by 20 experienced analysts from the National Intelligence Academy in Bucharest and other elements of the Romanian intelligence community." The work "is interesting for several reasons. It indicates how much Romanian thinking about intelligence has changed since the fall of its communist government. The book also reflects the considerable influence of the West in the methods it treats and in the sources it cites in the footnotes and the bibliography."

Williams, Kieran, and Dennis Deletant. Security Intelligence Services in New Democracies: The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania. London: Palgrave, in association with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College, London, 2001.

Wiant, Studies 46.4, finds that this work "is serious scholarship, rich in the theories of democratization and with a well-considered framework for comparative analysis of the progress that the new governments have made. The authors provide excellent, brief histories of the security services, and detail the unique circumstances that have characterized the development of each one." Overall, "legislative scrutiny remains relatively weak in all three countries.... At the present, the wide-open and spirited press, living off leaks from within the services, is the most effective watchdog over these organizations."

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