Poland

Enigma

K - Z

The materials pesented here focus specifically on the Polish role in the breaking of the German Enigma cipher system. General materials on the British work on the Enigma cipher system and the Allied use of the results during World War II can be accessed at Ultra Table of Contents.

Kahn, David. "How I Discovered World War II's Greatest Spy," Cryptologia 34, no. 1 (Jan. 2010): 12-21.

On the identification of Hans-Thilo Schmidt as the source of the information that eventually allowed the Poles to break the German Enigma.

Kapera, Zdzislaw J. In the Shadow of Pont du Gard: The Polish Enigma in Vichy France (June 1940 to November 1942). Krakow: The Enigma Press, 2011.

Christensen, Cryptologia 36.2 (Apr. 2012), finds that this book "describes in detail the work of the Polish codebreakers in Vichy France" and "is a welcome addition to information about the Polish codebreakers."

Kapera, Zdzislaw J., ed. Before Ultra There Was Gale: Some Contributions to the History of the Polish Enigma, 1939-1942. The Enigma Bulletin, No. 6. Mogilany, Poland: The Enigma Press, 2002.

Kruh, Cryptologia 27.4, notes that these essays come out of a conference on "The Contribution of Polish Intelligence to the Allied Victory in the Second World War," and mark the 70th anniversary (2002) of the breaking of the military Enigma by the Polish mathematician Marian Rejewski. This work provides "interesting reading about the vital role of the Polish Cipher Bureau in the Enigma battle."

Korbonski, Stefan. "The True Story of Enigma -- The German Code Machine in World War II." East European Quarterly 11 (Summer 1977): 227-234.

Sexton notes that by focusing on "the pioneering Polish contribution to the solution of ENIGMA," this article "[s]eeks to correct the impression that ULTRA was primarily an Anglo-American achievement."

Kozaczuk, Wladyslaw. Ed. and tr., Christopher Kasparek. Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, and How It Was Read by the Allies in World War II. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984.

According to Pforzheimer, the author focuses on "the role of Polish cryptologists in breaking the early German (pre-World War II) Enigma ciphers." Kozachuk may "give his Polish compatriots more credit than perhaps they should receive, major though their early work was." This volume belongs "on the shelf of important books on the Ultra secret." Sexton finds the book to be a "valuable corrective to Bertrand and Winterbotham" and an "essential source." For brief excerpts from this work, see Wladyslaw Kozaczuk, "Enigma Solved," Cryptologia 6, no. 1 (Jan. 1982): 32-33.

Kozaczuk, Wladyslaw, and Jerzy Straszak. Enigma: How the Poles Broke the Nazi Code. New York: Hippocrene, 2004.

Foot, I&NS 20.3 (Sep. 2005), notes that the authors "make it clear how successful the Poles were in breaking the machine cipher the Germans thought impregnable.... This short book ... is eminently readable, and deserves study."

Liliental, Witold K. "The Truth about Enigma Finally Surfaces." Everyone's War 2 (2000): 40-42.

From Royal Historical Society Database: "The Poles' pioneering role in breaking the German code."

Mayer, Stefan. The Breaking of the German Ciphering Machine "Enigma" by the Cryptological Section in the 2nd Department of the Polish Armed Forces General Staff. New York: Pilsudski Institute, 1974.

Nautical Brass Bibliography, [http://members.aol.com/nbrass/biblio.htm - no longer available], points out that while this work is "[p]rimarily of historical significance," it "may have been the first to point out that Polish contributions to breaking Enigma were vastly understated by Bertrand and Winterbotham."

Rejewski, Marian.

On 10 November 2007, a monument to Rejewski and his compatriots in the breaking of the Enigma was dedicated in Poznan. Marek Grajek, "Monument in memorium of Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rózycki, and Henryk Zygalski Unveiled in Poznan," Cryptologia 32, no. 2 (Apr. 2008): 101-103.

1. Tr., Joan Stepenske. "How Polish Mathematicians Deciphered the Enigma." Annals of the History of Computing 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1981): 214-234.

Sexton: The author "describes the grid and clock methods he used to uncover ENIGMA settings and briefly discusses the first bombes."

2. Tr., Joan Stepenske. "Mathematical Solution to the Enigma Cipher." Cryptologia 6, no. 1 (Jan. 1982), 1-25.

Sexton: An expansion of the earlier article.

3. Memories of My Work at the Cipher Bureau of the General Staff Second Department, 1930-1945. Eds., Magdalena Jaroszewska, et al. Poznan, Poland: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 2011. (The text is in both English and Polish.)

According to Christensen, Cryptologia 37.2 (2013), this work consists of two manuscript, one written by Rejewski in 1967 and the other in 1974. "The editors [footnote omitted] have done excellent work preparing this book," and their "editors' notes are generally excellent."

Stengers, J. "Enigma, the French, the Poles and the British, 1931-1940." In The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century, eds. Christopher Andrew and David Dilks, 126-137. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

Woytak, Richard A. On the Border of War and Peace: Polish Intelligence and Diplomacy in 1937-39 and the Origins of the Ultra Secret. Boulder, CO: East European Quarterly, 1979. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

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