Poland

Enigma

A - J

The materials pesented here focus specifically on the Polish role in the breaking of the German Enigma cipher system. General materials on the British work on the Enigma cipher system and the Allied use of the results during World War II can be accessed at Ultra Table of Contents.

Bateman, Gary M. "The Enigma Cipher Machine." Military Intelligence 8, no. 2 (Apr.-Jun. 1982): 24-28.

This is a brief survey of the development of the German Enigma cipher machine and of its initial breaking by Polish cryptologists.

Beesly, Patrick. "Who Was the Third Man at Pyry?" Cryptologia 11, no. 2 (Apr. 1987): 78-80.

According to Sexton, "Beesly identifies Humphrey Sandwi[th], not Stewart Menzies of SIS, as the third member" of the British group that met with the Poles in July 1939.

Bloch, Gilbert. Tr., C.A. Deavours.

1. "Enigma Before Ultra: Polish Work and the French Contribution." Cryptologia, Jul. 1987: 142-155.

2. "Enigma Before Ultra: The Polish Success and Check." Cryptologia, Oct. 1987: 227-233.

3. "Enigma Avant Ultra/Enigma Before Ultra." Cryptologia, Jul. 1988: 178-184.

Sexton identifies these articles as translations of chapters 3, 4, and 5 of Bloch's privately published Enigma Avant Ultra (1930-1940) (1988).

Bloch, Gilbert. "Polish Reconstitution of the German Military Enigma and the First Decryptments of Its Messages." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 1 (Summer 2001). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/previous.html]

From abstract: "The improved 1930 Militär-Enigma ... involve[d] provisions liable to jeopardize security, which, in combination with documents furnished by Hans-Thilo Schmidt (HE/Asche) to the French, would eventually enable three brilliant Polish mathematicians [Marian Rejewski, Henryk Zygalski, and Jerzy Rózycki] to decipher most of the German Army messages between 1933 and 1938.... Only in March 1939, after the Germans had added two more rotors to the Enigma, did the flow stop. When the British promised the Poles assistance in time of need, it was the beginning of close cooperation between Poland, France, and Great Britain."

Carter, Frank. The First Breaking of Enigma: Some of the Pioneering Techniques Developed by the Polish Cipher Bureau. Bletchley Park Report no. 10. Bletchley Park, UK: Bletchley Park Co. Ltd., 1999.

Kruh, Cryptologia 24.4: "An account of three remarkable methods developed by the Polish Cipher Bureau from 1932-1938, to decrypt intercepted German Enigma messages."

Ciechanowski, Jan Stanislaw, ed. Living With the Enigma Secret: Marian Rejewski 1905-1980. Bydgoszcz, Poland: Bydgoszcz City Council, 2005.

Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), notes that this "is a collection of reminiscences" in honor of Marian Rejewski, one of the Polish cryptographers who broke the German Enigma machine cipher in 1933 and gave their results to the British just before World War II. The book "is an important, long overdue contribution to the history of cryptology and sets straight the record of Marian Rejewski's role." (footnote omitted)

Erskine, Ralph. "The Poles Reveal Their Secrets: Alastair Dennison's Account of the July 1939 Meeting at Pyry." Cryptologia 30, no. 4 (Oct. 2006): 294-305.

Erskine provides both the document and commentary on "the only British first-hand account of the historic meeting near Pyry, outside Warsaw, on 26 and 27 July 1939." (footnote omitted) He also includes a letter from Dillwyn Knox to Dennison about the meeting.

Gallehawk, John. Some Polish Contributions in the Second World War. Bletchley Park Report no. 15. Bletchley Park, UK: Bletchley Park Co. Ltd., 1999.

Kruh, Cryptologia 24.4: "This report recounts the pre-war breaking of the German Enigma cipher system and the famous meeting of July 1939, when this work was revealed to the British and French Intelligence Services."

Gallehawk, John. "Third Person Singular (Warsaw 1939)." Cryptologia 30, no. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 2006): 193-198.

Based on "official documentary evidence," the author identifies the third person who met with Polish and French cryptologists in Warsaw in July 1939 as Commander Humphrey Sandwith, head of the Admiralty Interception Service.

Garlinski, Jozef. The Enigma War. New York: Scribner's, 1979. Intercept: The Enigma War. London: Dent, 1980.

For Constantinides, this is neither Garlinski's best book nor the best book on the cryptographic aspects of World War II. The author relied too much on secondary sources and was "prone to repeat errors or speculations." Nautical Brass Bibliography.calls Garlinski "[a]n excellent narrative story of Enigma, spies, and intelligence from the Polish point of view."

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