OTHER COUNTRIES

Palestinians

Click for materials regarding the CIA's role vis-a-vis the Palestinians and Israel under the Wye Peace Agreement.

Pacepa, Ion Mihai. "The Arafat I Know." Wall Street Journal, 10 Jan. 2002.

The former head of the Romanian foreign intelligence service, who defected to the West in 1978, claims to have aided the Soviet KGB in the indoctrination and training of PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat.

Schleiffer, Ron. Psychological Warfare in the Intifada: Israeli and Palestinian Media Politics and Military Strategies. Portland, OR: Sussex Academic Press, 2006.

For Gordon, DIJ 16.2 (2007), this work "provides valuable insights into the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians." It "is especially strong in its discussion of media policy in the furtherance of strategy.... Israeli fear and distrust of propaganda resulted in an information mechanism [that] was inadequate to deal with the challenge presented by the Intifada. Palestinians on the other hand ... understood the power of propaganda and did not hesitate to employ it in their struggle."

Perry, NWCR 61.2 (Spring 2008), believes that this work "offers a unique, though logically flawed, perspective of the first intifada, which he describes as 'political warfare.'" The author "analyzes the successful Palestinian tactics and compares them to the unsuccessful Israeli response through the components of 'psychological operations' (PSYOP) as presented in the U.S. Army Manual of Psychological Warfare.... [T]his work is ultimately unsatisfying, because its organization and thesis have logical flaws."

Shultz, Richard H., Jr. The Soviet Union and Revolutionary Warfare: Principles, Practices, and Regional Comparisons. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1988.

Valcourt, IJI&C 3.1, says that this book "breaks relatively new ground." The author seeks "to show ... that Soviet support of so-called 'wars of national liberation' is part of an evolving process." Shultz concludes that "the Soviet Union had no coherent plan to conquer the world, nor any significant revolutionary ideology to offer as unification to those waging guerrilla or political warfare." The book presents four cases: Vietnam, the PLO, Angola, and Central America, particularly Nicaragua. The author has undertaken a "comprehensive review of how Soviet newspapers and journals report and interpret that country's international involvements." The writing style is "dry and soporific."

Weiner, Tim. "C.I.A. Is Teaching Tricks of the Trade to the Palestinians." New York Times, 5 Mar. 1998, A1, A9 (N).

"With Israel's knowledge, C.I.A. counter-terrorism and covert-operations officers have been instructing senior and mid-level Palestinian security officials" in information-gathering, interrogation, and "other techniques of the trade." In the mid-to-late 1970s, the CIA had established ties with the PLO, only to have them broken when Ali Hassan Salemah was killed in 1979 and the U.S. Embassy in Beirut was bombed in 1983.

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