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Pakistan

General

Arif, Khalid Muhammad. Khaki Shadows: Pakistan 1947-1997. Karachi: Oxford University Press 2001.

For Arazi, JIH 2.2, this book "provides some of the raw material" for a history of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), offering "tantalizingly illuminating glimpses into its modus operandi." However, the book "is mainly a memoir of a career in the Pakistani Army which brought [the author] the highest rank.... A staff officer with no specific intelligence training or experience, he was nevertheless closely involved in intelligence matters at the highest level, not least thanks to his close working relationship with [Zia ul-Haq's] powerful and long-serving ISI chief, General Akhtar Abd-ur-Rahman."

Ball, Desmond J. Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 1996.

Davies, Philip H. J., and Kristian C. Gustafson, eds. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013.

Heard, Studies 59.1 (Mar. 2015), calls this work "a remarkably ambitious, edited collection of essays on the intelligence activities and organizations of a dozen countries or regions of the world." The book is divided into two sections. "The first contains four studies of what might be called the 'deep history' of intelligence in ancient China, India, the Byzantine Empire..., and the Islamic world. The book's second section has chapters on contemporary intelligence issues in Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, Japan, Ghana, Argentina, Sweden, and Finland."

Dhar, Maloy. Fulcrum of Evil: The ISI-CIA-Al Qaeda Nexus. New Delhi: Manas, 2006.

Peake, Studies 50.3 (Sep. 2006), says that the author's "somewhat warped analysis [concerning the CIA] suggests care should be taken in accepting his statements about other players. But the book has real value, despite its lack of documentation.... As a view from inside India and Islam, this is ... important if not easy reading."

Joshi, P.C. Main Intelligence Outfits of Pakistan. New Delhi: Anmol, 2008.

Peake, Studies 56.3 (Sep. 2012), expresses some reservations about this book: "most of the book consists of articles written by others"; the book's "organization is disjointed"; and this former Indian civil servant's attitude with regard to the Paistani ISI means that "one cannot tell" whether he got it right.

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Pakistan's Illiberal Democracy and the Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate." National Intelligence Journal 1, no. 1 (2009): 7-41.

"Distancing the ISI from domestic politics, and refocusing it on terrorism rather than on India are important steps towards normalizing the functioning of an intelligence agency within a nascent democratic system. However, the governance and oversight problems, such as those noted in this article, must be tackled urgently as part of a well thought out and coordinated effort to develop a properly functioning democratic polity."

Roberts, Mark J. "Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: A State within a State?" Joint Force Quarterly 48 (1st Quarter 2008): 104-110.

"Is it possible to carry out effective, combined U.S.-Pakistani counterterrorism operations yet encourage structural reforms within Pakistan's security organs with any hope of success? While the easy answer is to continue the war on terror and maintain the status quo, ignoring Pakistan's structural deficiencies, this path of least resistance has potentially deadly ramifications."

Tirmazi, Syed A. T. [Brigadier] Profiles of Intelligence. Lahore, Pakistan: Fiction House, 1995.

According to Peake, Studies 50.4 (2006), the author served in Pakistan's Intelligence Bureau and Inter-Services Intelligence, retiring in 1985. The term "profiles" in the title refers to case summaries or studies. "Counterintelligence and security operation -- defections and agent recruitments -- are described" in each of the book's chapters. In an unexplained omission, "the chapter on the KGB in Pakistan is only five pages long and says little." Nonetheless, the "book is a valuable contribution."

Winchell, Sean P. "Pakistan's ISI: The Invisible Government." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 374-388.

"Since partition, no political force within Pakistan has driven the nation's domestic and international political agenda as has its army, and more specifically, one of its intelligence units, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency.... With the rise of President Musharraf, and Pakistan's strengthened relationship with the United States, enough pressure may now exist to afford Musharraf the opportunity to bring the ISI firmly under government control."

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