OTHER COUNTRIES

U - Z

Included here:

1. Ukraine

2. Uzbekistan

3. Yemen

4. Yugoslavia

5. Zambia

6. Zimbabwe/Rhodesia

1. Ukraine

Anderson, Julie, and Joseph L. Albini. "Ukraine's SBU and the New Oligarchy." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 282-324.

The Ukraine gained its independence from the former USSR on 24 August 1991. The successor organization to the KGB in the Ukraine is the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU/Sluzhba Bezopasnosti v Ukrainii). The author sees the independent state as dominated by a tripartite "new oligarchy" comprised of the nomenklatura, the SBU, and organized crime.

Chivers, C.J. "A Crackdown Averted: How Top Spies in Ukraine Changed the Nation's Path." New York Times, 17 Jan. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]

At the moment when Ukraine "was tilting toward a terrible clash, a Soviet-style crackdown that could have brought civil war," senior intelligence officials were working to avert just such an outcome. "Throughout the crisis an inside battle was waged by a clique of Ukraine's top intelligence officers, who chose not to follow the plan by President Leonid D. Kuchma's administration to pass power to Prime Minister Viktor F. Yanukovich.... Instead, these senior officers ... worked against it."

Entous, Adam, and Julian E. Barnes. "U.S. Intelligence-Sharing Leaves Ukraine in the Dark." Wall Street Journal, 27 Feb. 2015. [http://www.wsj.com]

The United States "is providing spy-satellite imagery to Ukraine to help in its fight against Russia-backed rebels, but with a catch: the images are significantly degraded to avoid provoking Russia or compromising U.S. secrets. The White House agreed last year to Ukraine's request to provide the photos and other intelligence. But before delivering them, US officials black out military staging areas on Russian territory and reduce the resolution so that enemy formations can't be clearly made out, making them less useful to Ukrainian military commanders."

Reuters. "Ukraine Says Expels Four Russians For Spying." 2 Feb. 2010. [http://www.rferl.org]

According to Valentyn Nalyvaychenko, the head of Ukraine's main intelligence service, "Ukraine has expelled four Russians for spying and detained another on espionage charges.... Nalyvaychenko said the spy group -- which included officers from Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) and a Russian soldier stationed in Moldova's breakaway region Transdniestria -- had kidnapped a Ukrainian in an attempt to gain secrets. He said four of the Russians had been expelled from Ukraine while an FSB colonel had been arrested on espionage charges."

2. Uzbekistan

Chivers, C.J. "Long Before War, Green Berets Built Military Ties to Uzbekistan." New York Times, 25 Oct. 2001. [http://www.nytimes.com]

"In 1999, teams of Green Berets arrived at former Soviet garrisons" outside Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan. "The mission was straightforward: to train the army of a former foe, in part to prepare its inexperienced conscripts for skirmishes with the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, a terrorist group accused of setting off bombs in Tashkent earlier that year. The long-term goal was more ambitious. The Green Berets were one element of an accelerating security arrangement in which the two nations were laying the groundwork for more extensive military cooperation."

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Russia and the Intelligence Services of Central Asia." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 251-301.

The authors cover Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, as well as "Russia's lingering influence." The authors conclude that "the main intelligence agency in each of the Central Asian states has yet to operate similarly to those of mature democracies. For the most part, none is transparent or subject to any kind of rigorous review or oversight. In addition to traditional intelligence gathering functions, each has law enforcement powers that are at times used discriminately in support of the political regime in power."

3. Yemen

Jones, Clive.

1. Britain and the Yemen Civil War, 1962-1965: Ministers, Mercenaries and Mandarins: Foreign Policy and the Limits of Covert Action. Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic Press, 2004.

Mawby, I&NS 20.3 (Sep. 2005), finds that this work "contains much new and significant material about the Yemen Civil War." However, it also has "glaring deficiencies both in its major thesis and on points of detail." The reviewer notes, for example, that the Maria Theresa thaler/dollar "is rendered throughout as the Mother Theresa Dollar." This book must be read "with considerable care." Jones, I&NS 21.2 (Apr. 2006), 316-317, takes grave exception with the tone and conclusions of Mawby's review.

2. "'Where the State Feared to Tread': Britain, Britons, Covert Action and the Yemen Civil War, 1962-64." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 5 (Oct. 2006): 717-737.

Official British covert actions associated with the Yemen civil war were restricted to defensive activities along the border. Unofficially, a group of Conservation MPs worked with key Middle Eastern leaders in supporting a private mercenary organization.

4. Yugoslavia

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990-1995. Washington, DC: Office of Public Affairs, 2002.

Cohen, FA 81.6 (Nov.-Dec. 2002), says that "this massive volume is a wonderful resource for scholars and students alike. To take but one example, its account of Slovenia's successful struggle against the far larger Yugoslav National Army is a remarkable look at how a tiny country combined old techniques of territorial warfare with a distinctly modern sense of media relations. The work is based exclusively on unclassified sources, although the analysts clearly had access to much more.... This work is a superb contribution to contemporary strategic studies."

5. Zambia

Christie, Roy. For the President's Eyes Only: The Story of John Brumer. Johannesburg, SA: Keartland, 1971.

Henderson, IJI&C 20.3/555/fn.1 (Fall 2007), says that Brumer was "an intelligence advisor to then-Zambian president Kenneth Kaunda, as well as a secret Rhodesian double agent during the early UDI period in the late 1960s."

6. Zimbabwe/Rhodesia

Christie, Roy. For the President's Eyes Only: The Story of John Brumer. Johannesburg, SA: Keartland, 1971.

Henderson, IJI&C 20.3/555/fn.1 (Fall 2007), says that Brumer was "an intelligence advisor to then-Zambian president Kenneth Kaunda, as well as a secret Rhodesian double agent during the early UDI period in the late 1960s."

Flower, Ken. Serving Secretly: An Intelligence Chief on Record -- Rhodesia into Zimbabwe, 1964 to 1981. London: Murray, 1987. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988.

Murphy, Philip. "Creating a Commonwealth Intelligence Culture: The View from Central Africa, 1945-65." Intelligence and National Security 17, no. 3 (Autumn 2002): 131-162.

The author discusses efforts "by the British intelligence community to improve the security arrangements" of Commonwealth members following World War II. The process was "a means of countering Communist subversion[,]... protecting Britain's key relationship with the United States,... [and] entrenching British influence, particularly in countries nearing independence.... The result of this process was a complex network of intelligence contacts reaching across the Commonwealth."

Murphy, Philip. "Intelligence and Decolonialization: The Life and Death of the Federal Intelligence and Security Bureau, 1954-63." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 29, no. 2 (May 2001): 101-130.

The author seeks to reconstruct the history of the Federal Intelligence and Security Bureau (FISB) of the Central African Federation of Northern and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. He finds that the FISB's founder and director, Basil Maurice ("Bob") de Quehan, was also a serving officer in MI5.

Reid-Daly, Ron. Selous Scouts: Top Secret War. Alberton, South Africa: Galago Publishing, 1982.

Reuters. "Mugabe Launches Robert Mugabe Intelligence Academy." Washington Post, 26 Oct. 2007. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe has launched an intelligence academy named after him, saying it would produce officers able to counter growing threats from Western powers, state media reported" on 26 October 2007. The academy "is also expected to train members of the army, police and operatives from other southern African countries."

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