OTHER COUNTRIES

R - T

Included here:

1. Saudi Arabia

2. Slovakia

3. Sri Lanka

4. Sudan

5. Switzerland

6. Tajikistan

7. Thailand

8. Turkmenistan

1. Saudi Arabia

Gendron, Angela. "Confronting Terrorism in Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23, no. 3 (Fall 2010): 487-508.

"The major weakness of Saudi Arabia's counterterrorism strategy lies not in its security initiatives, but in the lack of any broad counter-radicalization policies to address the rising number of extremists within its own population who are potential recruits for terrorism."

McDowall, Angus. "Saudi Prince Bandar: A Flamboyant, Hawkish Spy Chief." Reuters, 20 Jul. 2012. [http://news.yahoo.com]

On 19 July 2012, "Prince Bandar bin Sultan was appointed Saudi Arabia's new spy chief."

Nakashima, Ellen. "Dismantling of Saudi-CIA Web Site Illustrates Need for Clearer Cyberwar Policies." Washington Post, 19 Mar. 2010, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to former senior officials, a "Saudi-CIA Web site was set up several years ago as a 'honey pot,' an online forum covertly monitored by intelligence agencies to identify attackers and gain information." Saudi intelligence operatives had used the site "to round up some extremists before they could strike." By early 2008, U.S. military officials, including Gen. Ray Odierno, U.S. military commander in Iraq, had grown "concerned that the site 'was being used to pass operational information' among extremists." The decision was made to designate the operation as "a traditional military activity," not as a covert operation, so there was no need to brief congressional committees.

The Pentagon's Joint Functional Component Command-Network Warfare at Fort Meade and its "[e]lite U.S. military computer specialists[,] ... mounted a cyberattack that dismantled the online forum." A former official said that "dismantling of the CIA-Saudi site inadvertently disrupted more than 300 servers in Saudi Arabia, Germany and Texas." According to another former U.S. official, "some Saudi officials had been informed in advance about the Pentagon's plan, [but] several key princes were 'absolutely furious' at the loss of an intelligence-gathering tool."

2. Slovakia

Williams, Kieran, and Dennis Deletant. Security Intelligence Services in New Democracies: The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania. London: Palgrave, in association with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College, London, 2001.

Wiant, Studies 46.4, finds that this work "is serious scholarship, rich in the theories of democratization and with a well-considered framework for comparative analysis of the progress that the new governments have made. The authors provide excellent, brief histories of the security services, and detail the unique circumstances that have characterized the development of each one." Overall, "legislative scrutiny remains relatively weak in all three countries.... At the present, the wide-open and spirited press, living off leaks from within the services, is the most effective watchdog over these organizations."

 

34. Sri Lanka

Ball, Desmond J. Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 1996.

4. Sudan

Shane, Scott. "C.I.A. Role in Visit of Sudan Intelligence Chief Causes Dispute Within Administration." New York Times, 18 Jun. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]

According to administration officials on 17 June 2005, the CIA's decision "to fly Sudan's intelligence chief [Salah Abdallah Gosh] to Washington in a C.I.A. jet in April set off a dispute inside the Bush administration, with some officials arguing that such recognition for a government accused of genocide and ties to terrorism sent a regrettable signal."

5. Switzerland

Click for Switzerland in World War II.

Click for 1998 incident involving Israeli Mossad.

Broad, William J., and David E. Sanger. "In Nuclear Net's Undoing, a Web of Shadowy Deals." New York Times, 25 Aug. 2008. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Swiss engineers, Friedrich Tinner and his two sons, have been accused of working with Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, "the Pakistani bomb pioneer-turned-nuclear black marketeer." However, interviews with current and former Bush administration officials point to "a clandestine relationship between the Tinners and the C.I.A." Several of these officials say that CIA operatives "paid the Tinners as much as $10 million" to supply "a flow of secret information that helped end Libya's bomb program, reveal Iran's atomic labors and, ultimately, undo Dr. Khan's nuclear black market."

Wylie, Neville. "'The Importance of Being Honest': Switzerland, Neutrality and the Problems of Intelligence Collection and Liaison." Intelligence and National Security 21, no 5 (Oct. 2006): 782-808.

The period since the end of the Cold War has seen the Swiss intelligence community undergo a "profound transformation[].... The new emphasis given to international cooperation in the country's defence and security policy has impacted directly on the field of secret intelligence."

6. Tajikistan

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Russia and the Intelligence Services of Central Asia." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 251-301.

The authors cover Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, as well as "Russia's lingering influence." The authors conclude that "the main intelligence agency in each of the Central Asian states has yet to operate similarly to those of mature democracies. For the most part, none is transparent or subject to any kind of rigorous review or oversight. In addition to traditional intelligence gathering functions, each has law enforcement powers that are at times used discriminately in support of the political regime in power."

7. Thailand

Aldrich, Richard J. The Key to the South: Britain, the United States, and Thailand During the Approach of the Pacific War, 1929-1942. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1993.

According to Surveillant 3.2/3, Aldrich "examines the accelerating Western struggle with Japan for control over 'independent' Thailand.... Many clandestine aspects of this struggle are explored for the first time." Kruh, Cryptologia 18.1, notes that "[a]lthough this excellent, meticulously researched study ... does not focus on espionage or other types of intelligence, it contains numerous references to clandestine activities."

Ettinger, Glenn. "Thailand's Defeat of Its Communist Party." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20, no. 4 (Winter 2007): 661-677.

This article is based on the author's conversations between 2004 and 2006 with retired police Maj. Gen. Ari Kaributra, "the architect of the strategy to defeat Communism in Thailand," and "two of his key subordinates who participated in executing the program."

Osornprasop, Sutayut. "Amidst the Heat of the Cold War in Asia: Thailand and the American Secret War in Indochina (1960-74)." Cold War History 7, no. 3 (Aug. 2007): 349-371.

From abstract: This article presents "new findings on covert Thai intervention in Laos, in association with the United States, during the Vietnam War." It is "[b]ased on the new release of declassified US official documents and recent interviews with former diplomatic, intelligence and military officers from Laos, Thailand and the United States who were directly involved in the conflicts."

8. Turkmenistan

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Russia and the Intelligence Services of Central Asia." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 251-301.

See above under Tajikistan.

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