OTHER COUNTRIES

L - Q

Included here:

1. Lithuania

2. Malaysia

3. Mongolia

4. Morocco

5. Oman

6. Philippines

7. Portugal

1. Lithuania

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Lithuania, the CIA, and Intelligence Reform." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 571-594.

"While Lithuania claims that its intelligence services now operate according to the democratic norms, internationally accepted human rights principles, and the rule of law, determining that to be the case with a high degree of certainty remains difficult. Careful monitoring of the situation, and especially of Parliament's effectiveness in carrying out its oversight function, will remain necessary for the foreseeable future to ensure that Lithuania does not diverge from its democratic commitments."

Sulick, Michael J. "As the USSR Collapsed: A CIA Officer in Lithuania." Studies in Intelligence 50, no. 2 (2006): 1-11.

The author is the former ADDO and Chief/SE/DO. As the Soviet Union began to implode and the communist governments in Eastern Europe began to fall, Milt Bearden, Chief of the CIA's Soviet and East European Division (SE), "moved quickly to forge relationships with these former Soviet Bloc adversaries.... As the bastion of communism was about to fall in Moscow, Bearden was eager to continue engaging old enemies -- and potential new friends -- only this time on what had been Soviet territory.... [I]n the last week of August 1991, just a week after the failure of the coup attempt in Moscow, I embarked on one of the most thrilling and rewarding trips of my CIA career."

Whitlock, Craig. "Lithuanian Resignation Tied to CIA Inquiry." Washington Post, 15 Dec. 2009. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

Povilas Malakauskas, director of the State Security Department, "resigned [on 14 December 2009], the apparent casualty of an official investigation into whether the Baltic country allowed the CIA to operate a secret prison for terrorism suspects."

2. Malaysia

Click for materials on the Malayan Emergency, 1948-1960.

Jumper, Roy D.L. "Malaysia's Senoi Praaq Special Forces." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 64-93.

The author argues that the Senoi Praaq "now plays an important role in national security affairs, reaching into the realm of Malaysia's high politics."

Murfett, Malcolm H., ed. Cold War Southeast Asia. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, 2012.

Castle, Studies 58.3 (Sep. 2014), comments that readers "in the hunt for the lessons of history will find this collection of 12 wide-ranging Cold War-related essays most rewarding.... [T]he authors bring forth new information and thoughtfully crafted insights on the Cold War's impact on the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the establishment of Singapore.... [T]he volume includes an in-depth recounting of the origins of Thai-U.S. involvement in the Laotian 'secret war.'"

3. Mongolia

Karniol, Robert. "Mongolia Reshapes Intelligence Agency: Interview with Ravdangiin Bold." Jane's Defence Weekly, 2 Sep. 1998, 17, 32.

Bold is Secretary-General of the Mongolian National Security Council.

Williams, John W. "Mongolia: Political Oversight of Intelligence." World Intelligence Review 14, no. 4 (Jul.-Aug. 1995): 1-3.

4. Morocco

Derdzinski, Joseph L. [LTCOL/USAF] Internal Security Services in Liberalizing States. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009.

From publisher: This work "provides a comparative account of the internal security situations of Morocco and Indonesia."

Thomas, Martin. "Crisis Management in Colonial States: Intelligence and Counter-Insurgency in Morocco and Syria after the First World War." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 5 (Oct. 2006): 697-716.

This article "analyses the performance of French security services confronted with violent unrest and communal rebellion in Morocco and Syria in the 1920s.... [T]he central proposition ... is that the inter-war protectorates, mandates and colonies stretching in an arc through the Arab world were 'intelligence states.'"

Nomikos, John M., and Aya Burweila. "Another Frontier to Fight: International Terrorism and Islamic Fundamentalism in North Africa." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 50-88.

"[T]he alliance of North Africa's regional militant groups with international networks represents not only the further globalization of Islamic terror, but also strongly suggests that North Africa, in particular Morocco and Algeria, is to act as another major frontier of Jihad against the United States, Europe, and secular regimes in Muslim populated countries." [Footnote omitted]

5. Oman

Eickelman, Dale F.

1. "Intelligence in an Arab Gulf State [Oman]." In Comparing Foreign Intelligence: The U.S., the USSR, the U.K. & the Third World, ed. Roy Godson, 89-114. Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1988.

2. And M. G. Dennison. "Arabizing the Omani Intelligence Services: Clash of Cultures?" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 7, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 1-28.

6. Philippines

Bruneau, Thomas C., and Steven C. Boraz, eds. Reforming Intelligence: Obstacles to Democratic Control and Effectiveness. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2007.

According to Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), this book's 13 chapters include "studies that discuss democratic control and effectiveness in three Western nations -- the United States, the United Kingdom, and France -- and seven new democracies -- Brazil, Taiwan, Argentina, Romania, South Africa, Russia, and the Philippines." Reforming Intelligence "is well documented, well written, and should serve as a foundation for studying this persistent problem."

Reddig, NIPQ 23.4 (Sep. 2007), calls this a "useful and thought provoking compendium of case studies," dealing with "the challenge of maintaining an intelligence establishment in a democratic framework." For Skarstedt, NIJ 1.1 (2009), "[a]ll of the authors provide outstanding analysis of their various subjects, and this book is a comprehensive study of intelligence reform and its problems. The commoin theme shared by all of the authors is that intelligence must be closely controlled."

Manila Times. "Former Aide of GMA Heads AFP Intelligence." 10 Mar. 2006. [http://www.manilatimes.net]

On 9 March 2006, Leonardo Calderon, a former military aide to President Arroyo, "took over as the new head of the Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (Isafp), the military’s main intelligence arm."

Murfett, Malcolm H., ed. Cold War Southeast Asia. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, 2012.

Castle, Studies 58.3 (Sep. 2014), comments that readers "in the hunt for the lessons of history will find this collection of 12 wide-ranging Cold War-related essays most rewarding.... [T]he authors bring forth new information and thoughtfully crafted insights on the Cold War's impact on the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the establishment of Singapore.... [T]he volume includes an in-depth recounting of the origins of Thai-U.S. involvement in the Laotian 'secret war.'"

Shanker, Thom. "U.S. Military Unit to Stay in Philippines." New York Times, 21 Aug. 2009. [http://www.nytimes.com]

According to Pentagon officials, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates will keep the "elite 600-troop counterinsurgency operation," known as the Joint Special Operations Task Force-Philippines, "deployed in the Philippines despite pressure to reassign its members to fulfill urgent needs elsewhere such as Afghanistan or Iraq.... Senior officials say the American force and partners in the Central Intelligence Agency were instrumental in successes by the Filipino armed forces in killing and capturing leaders of the militant group Abu Sayyaf and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front."

7. Portugal

Click for reportage concerning Portugal in World War II.

Cann, John P. Counterinsurgency in Africa: The Portuguese Way of War, 1961-74. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.

Campbell, IJI&C 11.4, notes that this book "covers Portugal's counterinsurgency campaigns ... in three of its colonies: Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea." The author depends heavily on interviews with participants. "On the whole, Portuguese forces were seldom caught by surprise, suggesting that their intelligence system functioned efficiently."

Pinto, Maria do Céu. "Portugal's Intelligence Evolution in the Post-9/11 World." International Journal of Intelligence andCounterintelligence 25, no. 1 (Spring 2012): 160-177.

"[T]he 11 March 2004 attacks in Spain further changed Lisbon's perception about the imminent character of the terrorist threat."

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