OTHER COUNTRIES

E - K

Included here:

1. Estonia

2. Georgia

3. Ghana

4. Hong Kong

5. Indonesia

6. Kazakhstan

7. Kenya

8. Kosovo

9. Kyrgyzstan

1. Estonia

Tanner, Jari. "Estonian Official Convicted of Treason in Spy Case." Associated Press, 25 Feb. 2009. [http://www.ap.com]

On 25 February 2009, an Estonian court convicted Herman Simm, former head of security at the Estonian Defense Ministry, of having passed "domestic and NATO secrets to Russia" from at least 1995 until his arrest in 2008.

2. Georgia

Goble, Paul. "The War Behind the War: Russian and Georgian Intelligence Agencies Join Battle." Intelligencer 17, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2009): 7-9.

"Before, during and after the five-day war in Caucasus, the intelligence agencies of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Georgia played significant roles in the decisions and actions of their respective governments."

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Intelligence Aspects of the 2008 Conflict Between Russia and Georgia." Journal of Slavic Military Studies 22, no. 1, (2009): 4-19.

"Georgia's underestimation of the strength and overall military capabilities of the Russian armed forces as well as the planning and force of the Russian response, lack of Western intervention, even what has been referred to Saakashvili's 'gamble' in the Georgian attack on Tskhinvali, may all reflect in some measure the failures and systemic weakness of Georgian intelligence. These factors will prove important in any remedying undertaken by the government in Tbilisi, and will need to be understood by [NATO] as it considers how best to assist in efforts to enhance the security capabilities of post-conflict Georgia."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. "North Ossetian Court Sentences Georgian on Spy Charges." 14 Sep. 2009. [http://www.rferl.org]

The Supreme Court in the Russian republic of North Ossetia has sentenced Aleksandr Khachirov to seven years in jail or being a Georgian spy. Khachirov was charged "with disclosing information about the location of Russian military forces within North Ossetia and the breakaway Georgian region of South Ossetia."

RIA Novosti. "Russian Army Officer Gets 6 Years in Jail for Spying for Georgia." 28 Aug. 2009. [http://en.rian.ru]

On 28 August 2009, a Russian military court sentenced Lt. Col. Mikhail Khachidze, a deputy unit commander in the North Caucasus Military District, to "six years in prison for high treason and espionage and stripped him of his rank." Khachidze was arrested in August 2008; an investigation showed that he "was recruited by Georgian military intelligence in October 2007 and had been passing them military secrets."

Tass. "Russian Officer Convicted for Espionage in Favour of Georgia." 16 Oct. 2009. [http://www.itar-tass.com]

On 16 October 2009, the North Caucasian district court martial sentenced Sergeant Major Dzhemal Nakaidze "to nine years of imprisonment in a maximum-security penal colony for espionage in favour of Georgia.... The investigators established that Nakaidze's spying had lasted from July 9 to November 25, 2008."

3. Ghana

Davies, Philip H. J., and Kristian C. Gustafson, eds. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013.

Heard, Studies 59.1 (Mar. 2015), calls this work "a remarkably ambitious, edited collection of essays on the intelligence activities and organizations of a dozen countries or regions of the world." The book is divided into two sections. "The first contains four studies of what might be called the 'deep history' of intelligence in ancient China, India, the Byzantine Empire..., and the Islamic world. The book's second section has chapters on contemporary intelligence issues in Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, Japan, Ghana, Argentina, Sweden, and Finland."

Quantson, Kofi Bentum. Ghana: National Security -- The Dilemma. 2d ed. Accra, Ghana: NAPASVIL Ventures, 2006.

Henderson, IJI&C 20.3 (Fall 2007), notes that the author is a "long-time Ghanaian national security practitioner." Although this book is "well drafted, it has been written principally for a local audience," which means it may be difficult for someone not familiar with Ghanaian affairs.

Rathbone, Richard. "Police Intelligence in Ghana in the later 1940s and 1950s." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 21, no. 3 (Sep. 1993): 107-128.

4. Hong Kong

Lombardo, Johannes R. "A Mission of Espionage, Intelligence and Psychological Operations: The American Consulate in Hong Kong, 1949-64." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 64-81.

Hong Kong "became a very important location for American intelligence operations and propaganda policy in Asia.... [S]ome of the American Consulate's activities ... at this time put a strain on the Anglo-American relationship."

5. Indonesia

Click for materials on covert action activities regarding Indonesia.

Conboy, Kenneth. Intel: Inside Indonesia's Intelligence Service. Jakarta, Indonesia: Equinox, 2003.

King, NIPQ 21.3 (Sep. 2005), finds that this book provides "a well-documented view of Indonesia's role during the Cold War years.... [This] is a groundbreaking work of research that fills in gaps in our knowledge of the secret services of Indonesia and provides a framework for further work in this area."

Davies, Philip H. J., and Kristian C. Gustafson, eds. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013.

Heard, Studies 59.1 (Mar. 2015), calls this work "a remarkably ambitious, edited collection of essays on the intelligence activities and organizations of a dozen countries or regions of the world." The book is divided into two sections. "The first contains four studies of what might be called the 'deep history' of intelligence in ancient China, India, the Byzantine Empire..., and the Islamic world. The book's second section has chapters on contemporary intelligence issues in Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, Japan, Ghana, Argentina, Sweden, and Finland."

Derdzinski, Joseph L. [LTCOL/USAF] Internal Security Services in Liberalizing States. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009.

From publisher: This work "provides a comparative account of the internal security situations of Morocco and Indonesia."

6. Kazakhstan

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Russia and the Intelligence Services of Central Asia." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 251-301.

The authors cover Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, as well as "Russia's lingering influence." The authors conclude that "the main intelligence agency in each of the Central Asian states has yet to operate similarly to those of mature democracies. For the most part, none is transparent or subject to any kind of rigorous review or oversight. In addition to traditional intelligence gathering functions, each has law enforcement powers that are at times used discriminately in support of the political regime in power."

RFE/RL. "Kazakh Senate Approves New Intelligence Chief ." 2 Mar. 2006. [http://www.rferl.org]

On 2 March 2006, Kazakhstan's Senate unanimously approved Amangeldy Shabdarbaev, the personal security boss of President Nursultan Nazarbaev, to replace Nartai Dutbaev as the head of the National Security Service (KNB). "Dutbaev resigned following the slaying of opposition leader Altynbek Sarsenbaev. Five officers from the KNB's elite Arystan (Lion) anti-terrorism unit were arrested over the killing."

7. Kenya

Capital Reporter. "Gichangi Resigns as Kenya's Intelligence Chief." CapitalNews, 14 Aug. 2014. [http://www.capitalfm.co.ke]

On 14 August 2014, President Uhuru Kenyatta announced the resignation of Director-General of the National Intelligence Service Major-General Michael Gichangi "on personal grounds.... Gichangi ha[s] been asked to stay on until a new appointment is made."

Kenya's Daily Nation reported on 21 August 2014 that Kenyan President Kenyatta has "nominated Major General Philip Wachira Kameru as the new head of the National Intelligence Service." See "Kenyatta Nominates New National Intelligence Service Chief," All Africa, 22 Aug. 2014. Kameru was sworn in on 11 September 2014. Simon Ndonga, CapitalNews, 11 Sep. 2014.

8. Kosovo

Lombardi, Ben. "Balkan Intrigue: German Intelligence and Kosovo." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 3 (Fall 2009): 470-490.

The author reviews the state of play involved in the arrest in November 2008 in Kosovo of three members of the Federal German intelligence service (BND).

9. Kyrgyzstan

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Russia and the Intelligence Services of Central Asia." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 251-301.

See above under Kazakhstan.

Saralayeva, Leila. "Russian TV Accuses US of Spying on Russia, China." Associated Press, 6 Apr. 2009. [http://www.ap.com]

A film aired on the Rossiya TV channel on 5 April 2009 "accused the U.S. of using an air base in Kyrgyzstan to spy on Russia and China -- an allegation a spokesman for the base flatly denied" on 6 April 2009. The film also shows "a building it said was used for electronic surveillance" and "shows a woman identified as Vicki Lynn Rundquist, whom it says is first secretary of the political division at the U.S. Embassy in Kyrgyzstan and an undercover CIA agent."

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