OTHER COUNTRIES

Norway

Click for materials on Norway's role in World War II.

Aid, Matthew M. "In the Right Place at the Right Time: US Signals Intelligence Relations with Scandinavia, 1945-1960." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 4 (Aug. 2006): 575-605.

From abstract: "US-Scandinavian intelligence relations in general, and Signals Intelligence (Sigint) relations in particular, during the period 1945 through 1960 were more extensive and complicated than had previously been believed.... This paper covers the quantity, quality, and types of intelligence information provided to the US by each of the Scandinavian nations [Norway, Denmark, and Sweden], demonstrating that the nature of US intelligence relations with these countries changed substantially as time went by."

Ausland, John. "A Mole Unmasked: The Arne Treholt Spy Case." The Norseman 2 (1984): 55-57.

BBC. "Norway Spy Chief Kristiansen Quits in Secrecy Gaffe." 19 Jan. 2012. [http://www.bbc.co.uk]

On 18 January 2012, Norwegian Police Security Service (PST) chief "Janne Kristiansen ... handed in her resignation because she said too much during a parliamentary hearing.... In the transcript, she answers a question" from an MP "about the extent of the PST's links with Pakistan. Although she indicates that the PST does not have its own relationship with Pakistan intelligence, she says the Norwegian armed forces' intelligence agency, or E service, does."

Berry, Jessica. "Norway and Russia Expel Envoys in Row over Nuclear Spying." Telegraph (London), 22 Mar. 1998. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

Norway "expelled two Russian diplomats on espionage charges last week and declared three others persona non grata. Russia retaliated, expelling two Norwegians from their embassies in Moscow and Murmansk." The Russians were accused of attempting to recruit Norwegian government employees "to steal environmental secrets about Russian dumping of defunct nuclear submarines."

Born, Hans, and Marina Caparini, eds. Democratic Control of Intelligence Services: Containing Rogue Elephants. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007.

According to Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), four Western (France, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and five former Soviet bloc (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Romania) countries are discussed; there are also articles discussing "the fundamental principles of oversight." Although this work "looks closely at what has been and what needs to be done, it does not address the practical problem of the qualifications of those doing the oversight."

Born, Hans, Loch K. Johnson, and Ian Leigh, eds. Who's Watching the Spies? Establishing Intelligence Service Accountability. Dulles, VA: Potomac, 2005.

From publisher: The authors "examine the strengths and weaknesses of the intelligence systems of Argentina, Canada, Germany, Norway, Poland, South Africa, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States."

Peake, Studies 50.2 (2006), comments that "[t]he experiences of each nation provide an interesting mosaic of desired goals and problems of implementation.... It is a timely topic and worth the attention of all those who must deal with these issues everyday as well as the general public whose civil rights are affected when oversight is too robust or inadequate." To Jacoby, DIJ 16.2 (2007), this work "succeeds greatly as an informative source on the workings of current intelligence oversight systems." However, "[t]he reader is left wanting recommendations and commentary on the ethics of intelligence oversight."

For Winn, Parameters, Summer 2006, this "valuable contribution ... addresses the central criteria that should be taken into account by any nation or international organization that hopes to place intelligence agencies under democratic supervision.... [T]he objectives are to ensure that intelligence and security agencies are insulated from political abuse, but not isolated from executive governance."

Brown, I&NS 21.6 (Dec. 2006), finds this work to be "a diappointment. Most of the material is dry and sometimes soporific. It is also biased toward the advocates of intelligence accountability," in that the "essays all address the positives of such a program, but not the negatives.... A debate format would have been much more appropriate..., and could have easily been accomplished by excluding numerous irrelevant and tedious essays."

CNN. "Norwegian Correspondent Charged As East German Spy; Reporter Denies Allegations." 21 Jan. 2000. [http://www.cnn.com]

Stein Viksveen, the Brussels correspondent for the Norwegian newspaper Stavanger Aftenblad, "has been charged with spying for the Stasi" from 1962 to 1989, the accused journalist's newspaper reported on 21 January 2000.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter. "National Security and Freedom of Expression: The Scandinavian Legal Battles." Journal of Media Law and Practice (Apr. 1987): 2-5.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter. "The Treholt Case: A Review of the Literature." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 3 (Jul. 1995): 529-538.

Arne Treholt, a state secretary in the Norwegian Ministry of Ocean Law, was arrested and charged with espionage in January 1984. He "has been characterized by Oleg Gordievsky as one of the KGB's ten most important agents." His conviction, particularly the harshness of the penalty, remains "embroiled in political controversy" in Norway. Gleditsch divides the literature into the standard "traditionalist," "revisionist," and "post-revisionist" framework.

Jacobsen, Alf R. "Scandinavia, Sigint and the Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 209-242.

Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were all "deeply engaged in signals intelligence collection against the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War, albeit in great secrecy.... Available evidence suggests that Sweden, despite its neutrality, maintained a substantial clandestine Sigint sharing relationship with the US and Great Britain, particularly during the early stages of the Cold War."

Njølstad, Olav. "Atomic Intelligence in Norway during the Cold War." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 4 ( 2006): 653-673.

From abstract: "Norway took substantial part in the Western intelligence effort against the Soviet nuclear weapons programme during the Cold War.... Whereas the tasks of surveying the development, deployment and possible employment of Soviet nuclear forces always had first priority, Western atomic intelligence conducted from Norwegian soil and waters was occasionally aimed even at gathering information about the geophysical and possible long-term medical and environmental implications of high-yield nuclear explosions in the atmosphere."

Petersson, Magnus. "The Scandinavian Triangle: Danish-Norwegian-Swedish Military Intelligence Cooperation and Swedish Security Policy during the First Part of the Cold War." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 4 ( 2006): 607-632.

From abstract: For Sweden, Scandinavian intelligence cooperation "represented an important part of the wider contacts with the West. Although military intelligence was important for Swedish security policy-making in some respects (e.g. military readiness), it did not have a significant influence in others (e.g. the politicians' threat perceptions). One important reason is the Swedish tradition of weak connections between the political and military leadership."

Riste, Olav, and Arnfinn Moland. Top Secret: The Norwegian Intelligence Service, 1945-1970. London: Frank Cass, 1999.

According to Hess, IIHSG [International Intelligence History Association] Newsletter 7.2 (Winter 1999-2000) [http://intelligence-history.wiso.uni-erlangen.de/ reviews.htm], "Riste meticulously traces the 'looking-glass' activities, which pierced the Iron Curtain and provided invaluable intelligence results for the countries of the Atlantic Alliance.... This extraordinary book throws light on many intelligence aspects of the Cold War. The author has provided a thorough account of the NIS and struck the right balance between technical detail and readability. The book is well edited and richly documented."

Salmon, I&NS 16.3, says that Riste tells his story "with exceptional clarity and fluency." The author "avoid[s] sensation, and yet ... bring[s] out the very substantial achievements of Norwegian intelligence." For Kruh, Cryptologia 24.3, this is a "thoroughly documented history of the growth of the Norwegian Intelligence Service (NIS) during the Cold War."

Sandelson, Michael. "Spying by Norway on the Increase." The Foreigner, 22 Jun. 2010. [http://theforeigner.no]

Lt. Gen. Kjell Grandhagen, head of Norway's intelligence service, has stated that the "intelligence service is currently operating" in Afghanistan, Somalia, Chad, Sudan, Egypt, Congo, the Middle East, Kosovo, and Bosnia. These are "countries and regions where Norwegian officers and soldiers are stationed." One of the military's trademarks is "the integration of electronic surveillance when using Special Forces." Meanwhile, other countries are "placing their spies on Norwegian soil. The Police Security Service (PST), [has] counted intelligence officers from 19 ... countries. Though some of them are here legally, some have come under false pretences."

Shawcross, Wiliam. "The Case of the Pampered Spy." Reader's Digest, Jun. 1988, 117 ff.

Tamnes, Rolf. The United States and the Cold War in the High North. Albershot & Oslo: Dartmouth & Ad Notam, 1991.

Gleditsch, I&NS 7.2, says that this book on the U.S.-Norwegian bilateral security relationship is "professionally written and produced, with extremely detailed notes and a valuable bibliography."

Weller, Geoffrey R.

1. "Political Scrutiny and Control of Scandinavia's Security and Intelligence Services." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 171-192.

The author covers the services of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.

2. "Scandinavian Security and Intelligence, the European Union, WEU and NATO." Scandinavian Studies 70, no. 1 (Spring 1988): 70-86.

Wilkes, Owen, and Nils Petter Gleditsch. Intelligence Installations in Norway: Their Number, Location, Function, and Legality. Oslo, Norway: PRIO, 1979.

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