OTHER COUNTRIES

Lebanon

Aburish, Said K. Beirut Spy: International Intrigue at the St. George Hotel Bar. London: Bloomsbury, 1990.

Diab, Youssef. "Army Officer Sentenced to 20 Years for Collaboration." Daily Star (Beirut), 18 Jun. 2011. [http://www.dailystar.com.lb]

On 17 June 2011, a Military Tribunal "sentenced Army Col. Mansour Diab to 20 years hard labor after finding him guilty of supplying Israel with documents and classified information about the army as well as military and civilian sites."

Goldman, Adam, and Matt Apuzzo. "Hezbollah Unmasks US Spies; CIA Hurt in Lebanon, Scrambles to Protect 'Assets.'" Associated Press, 21 Nov. 2011. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"The CIA's operations in Lebanon have been badly damaged after Hezbollah identified and captured a number of U.S. spies recently, current and former U.S. officials told The Associated Press.... CIA officials have secretly been scrambling to protect their remaining spies ... before Hezbollah can find them.... Backed by Iran, Hezbollah has built a professional counterintelligence apparatus that [Hezbollah's longtime leader, Sheik Hassan] Nasrallah ... proudly describes as the 'spy combat unit.' U.S. intelligence officials believe the unit, which is considered formidable and ruthless, went operational in about 2004." See also, Greg Miller, "Hezbollah Damages CIA Spy Network in Lebanon," Washington Post, 21 Nov. 2011.

Harnden, Toby. "CIA Gets the Go-ahead to Take on Hizbollah." Telegraph (London), 10 Jan. 2007. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

A finding signed by President George W. Bush before Christmas 2006 authorizes the CIA "to take covert action against Hizbollah ... to help the Lebanese government prevent the spread of Iranian influence. Senators and congressmen have been briefed on the classified 'non-lethal presidential finding' that allows the CIA to provide financial and logistical support to the prime minister, Fouad Siniora."

Kennedy, David, and Leslie Brunetta. "Lebanon and the Intelligence Community: A Case Study." Studies in Intelligence 37, no. 5 (1994): 37-51.

"This article is an abridged version of a case written in 1988 at the Kennedy School of Government."

Miller, Greg. "Hezbollah Damages CIA Spy Network in Lebanon." Washington Post, 21 Nov. 2011. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

U.S. officials said on 21 November 2011 that "[a] group of CIA informants in Lebanon were captured earlier this year by Hezbollah.... [T]he identities of as many as a half-dozen informants appear to have been betrayed by cellphone records and calling patterns, underscoring the sophistication of Hezbollah's counterintelligence efforts as well as the hazards of espionage in an age when even CIA assets can be tripped up by a data trail." See also, Adam Goldman and Matt Apuzzo, "Hezbollah Unmasks US Spies; CIA Hurt in Lebanon, Scrambles to Protect 'Assets,'" Associated Press, 21 Nov. 2011.

Nasif, Nicholas. "Tenet Given Assurances that No al-Qa'ida Cells Infiltrated Lebanon." Beirut al-Nahar in Arabic, 28 Nov. 2002.

[Excerpts from FBIS Translated Text] "A security official has recently returned from Washington after three days of meetings with CIA Director George Tenet and his assistants for terrorism and Middle Eastern affairs. The talks dealt with the security cooperation between Lebanon and the United States within the framework of the US-led international campaign on terror....

"As a result of the discussions, Tenet and his aides expressed satisfaction with stability in Lebanon and with the cooperation of the Lebanese security services with the CIA station in the American Embassy in Beirut. This is a constant and accurate cooperation in the fight against terrorism. The Lebanese authorities deal seriously with the information they receive from the CIA station, and they regularly supply the station with information within the anti-terror plan."

Phares, Walid. "The Intelligence Services in Lebanon During the War of 1975-1990." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 7, no. 3 (Fall 1994): 363-381.

Schleiffer, Ron. "Psychological Operations: A New Variation of an Age Old Art: Hezbollah versus Israel." Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29 (2006): 1-19.

Wege, Carl Anthony. "Hezbollah's Communications System: A Most Important Weapon." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 27, no. 2 (Summer 2014): 240-252.

"Hezbollah communication was set apart by the scaled, disciplined, and systematic deployment of a layered communication architecture, from copper land lines to encrypted VoIPs."

Wege, Carl Anthony. "Hizballah's Counterintelligence Apparatus." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 4 (Winter 2012-2013): 771-785.

Discusses "the increasing scope and complexity of Hizballah's counterintelligence apparatus.... While Hizballah's counterintelligence capacity has grown dramatically, the organization now faces a strategic environment of ever-increasing complexity."

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