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India

A - M

Ali, Salamat. "The Imperfect Spies." Far Eastern Economic Review, 5 Jan. 1989, 18-19.

Balachandran, V. "Intelligible Intelligence: An Alchemy of Collation & Coordination." The Times of India, 21 Sep. 2000. [http://www.timesofindia.com]

The author is a former Special Secretary in the Indian Cabinet Secretariat. Here, he argues for stronger central coordination of Indian intelligence, for clear charters for the Indian intelligence agencies, for the Indian government to seek to learn from the Brown Commission Report of 1996 in the United States, and for upgrading of India's technical collection capability.

Ball, Desmond J. "Signals Intelligence in India." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 3 (Jul. 1995): 377-407.

Ball notes that the British began signals intelligence operations in India early this century. He reviews briefly British activities in India, the future Pakistan, and Ceylon in World War II.

"Cooperation with the US with respect to some specific but very important Sigint activities was established in the early 1960s, after the war with China in October-November 1962. In 1962-63 the CIA funded the construction of a base at Charbatia ... which was used for airborne intelligence ... operations against China.... In early 1964 India agreed to a US proposal to install, in the Himalayas, remotely-operated telemetry intelligence (Telint) devices.... In 1969 the United States established a large Sigint station in north India" to replace the station at Peshawar closed in July 1969 by the Pakistanis.

"In the early 1970s the Soviet Union established two Sigint stations in Punjab."

Ball reviews the organizational structure of the Indian signals intelligence establishment. He believes that the performance of Indian Sigint "at the strategic level has been consistently poor." On the other hand, tactical-level signals intelligence "has been fairly good.... The principal reason for the relatively poor performance of the Indian Sigint establishment ... is the lack of any comprehensive Sigint policy and coordination machinery." He also regards Indian communications security (Comsec) as a "significant weak link" in signals intelligence activities. Ball concludes that "overall, the cost-effectiveness of India's Sigint activities must be reckoned to be fairly low."

Ball, Desmond J. Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 1996.

Dhar, Maloy Krishna. Intelligence Tradecraft: Secrets of Spy Warfare. New Delhi: Manas, 2011.

Peake, Studies 57.2 (Jun 2013), notes that the author "has included some historical background and candid comments on what he perceives are the strengths and weaknesses of the Indian intelligence services. But in the main, Intelligence Tradecraft sticks to tradecraft and is thus one of the few books to treat it in such depth. It is interesting and informative, well worth attention."

Dhar, Maloy Krishna. Open Secrets: India's Intelligence Unveiled. New Delhi: Manas, 2005.

Peake, Studies 50.2 (2006), comments that whether the author "has got it exactly right is difficult to say since he provides no documentation." What he offers "is a professional intelligence officer's view of India's intelligence organizations based on his observations during a 29-year career. The central theme of the book is that legislative oversight of the organizations, which are subordinate only to the executive branch, has long been needed.... Dhar retired in 1995 after being passed over ... for the top position in the [Intelligence Bureau], and he is critical of the man who got the job -- D.C. Pathak.... But this doesn't distract from the unique look Open Secrets provides into India's intelligence services."

Kashmeri, Zuhair, and Brian McAndrew. Soft Target: How the Indian Intelligence Service Penetrated Canada. Toronto: James Lorimer, 1989.

Kasturi, Bhashyam. Intelligence Services: Analysis, Organisation and Functions. Lancer paper no. 6.  New Delhi and London: Lancer, 1995.

From publisher: "[F]ocuses on the background to the rise of intelligence services in modern India."

Kohli, M.S., and Kenneth Conboy. Spies in the Himalayas: Secret Missions and Perilous Climbs. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2003.

Umansky, Washington Post, 16 Mar. 2003, notes that this book tells the "repeatedly jaw-dropping" story of the efforts of "a joint team of the best American and Indian mountain climbers" to plant high in the Himalayas a device to monitor Chinese nuclear tests. Kohli led the Indian half of the expedition.

For Goodman, I&NS 18.4, this "is effectively a memoir" of Kohli's experiences. It "is a very readable and very enjoyable account of a hitherto heavily classified mission." Wales, H-Diplo, H-Net Reviews, May 2003 [http://www.h-net.org], says that this "is not a particularly scintillating read," as it is burdened with "plodding prose." In addition, "the story is narrowly focused and there is little historiographic background.... Nevertheless, there are several vignettes in Spies that will fascinate students of intelligence history."

Kumar, Uday. Intelligence Tradecraft: An Art of Trapping the Enemy. [?:] Lucky International, 2013.

Peake, Studies 58.1 (Mar. 2014), says the author "does not provide sources notes, and his bibliography contains mainly Western references, some very outdated. And while Intelligence Tradecraft is in need of a good copy editor, it nevertheless gives a look at how intelligence is taught to India's paramilitary forces."

Mahadevan, Prem. "The Failure of Indian Intelligence in the Sino-Indian Conflict." Journal of Intelligence History 8, no. 1 (Summer 2008). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/journal.html]

Mahadevan, Prem. The Politics of Counterterrorism in India: Strategic Intelligence and National Security in South Asia. New York: Tauris, 2012.

Peake, Studies 56.3 (Sep. 2012) and Intelligencer 19.3 (Winter-Spring 2013), finds that this book provides "a very detailed conceptual analysis, supported by case studies, and backed by secondary sources. It is well worth serious attention by those concerned with the analyst-decisionmaker relationship."

Mullik, Bhola Nath. Chinese Betrayal: My Years With Nehru. Bombay: Allied Publishers, 1971.

The author headed the Indian Intelligence Bureau (IB) under Nehru until 1964.

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