OTHER COUNTRIES

Denmark

Click for material on the Danish Resistance in World War II.

Aid, Matthew M. "In the Right Place at the Right Time: US Signals Intelligence Relations with Scandinavia, 1945-1960." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 4 (Aug. 2006): 575-605.

From abstract: "US-Scandinavian intelligence relations in general, and Signals Intelligence (Sigint) relations in particular, during the period 1945 through 1960 were more extensive and complicated than had previously been believed.... This paper covers the quantity, quality, and types of intelligence information provided to the US by each of the Scandinavian nations [Norway, Denmark, and Sweden], demonstrating that the nature of US intelligence relations with these countries changed substantially as time went by."

Hansen, Peer Henrik. "'Upstairs and Downstairs' -- The Forgotten CIA Operations in Copenhagen." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 19, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007): 685-701.

Outlines the activities of "The Firm," an anticommunist group formed by former Resistance fighters in Denmark in the aftermath of World War II. From 1952 to 1959, the group maintained an "eavesdropping operation" in the apartment of the deputy chairman of the Danish Communist Party. The take was shared with the CIA.

Jacobsen, Alf R. "Scandinavia, Sigint and the Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 209-242.

Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were all "deeply engaged in signals intelligence collection against the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War, albeit in great secrecy.... Available evidence suggests that Sweden, despite its neutrality, maintained a substantial clandestine Sigint sharing relationship with the US and Great Britain, particularly during the early stages of the Cold War."

Petersson, Magnus. "The Scandinavian Triangle: Danish-Norwegian-Swedish Military Intelligence Cooperation and Swedish Security Policy during the First Part of the Cold War." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 4 ( 2006): 607-632.

From abstract: For Sweden, Scandinavian intelligence cooperation "represented an important part of the wider contacts with the West. Although military intelligence was important for Swedish security policy-making in some respects (e.g. military readiness), it did not have a significant influence in others (e.g. the politicians' threat perceptions). One important reason is the Swedish tradition of weak connections between the political and military leadership."

Philipsen, Ingeborg. "Out of Tune: The Congress for Cultural Freedom in Denmark, 1953-1960." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 237-253.

The author notes that the formation of the Society for Freedom and Culture "was an all-Danish initiative," not the result of activities by the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF). Even when the CCF Secretariat tried to take a more active role with the national committee, controlling the Danish committee was not an easy task -- or perhaps was an impossible proposition.

Weller, Geoffrey R.

1. "Political Scrutiny and Control of Scandinavia's Security and Intelligence Services." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 171-192.

The author covers the services of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.

2. "Scandinavian Security and Intelligence, the European Union, WEU and NATO." Scandinavian Studies 70, no. 1 (Spring 1988): 70-86.

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