OTHER COUNTRIES

Belgium

Included here:

1. Pre-World War II

2. World War II

3. Post-World War II

1. Pre-World War II

Alexander, Martin S. "In Lieu of Alliance: The French General Staff's Secret Co-operation with Neutral Belgium, 1936-1940." Journal of Strategic Studies 14, no. 4 (Dec. 1991): 413-427.

de Croÿ, Princess Marie. War Memories. London: Macmillan, 1932.

These are the memoirs of a Belgian aristocrat who aided Allied soldiers in escaping from the Germans in World War I.

Keunings, Luc. "The Secret Police in Nineteenth-Century Belgium." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1989): 59-85.

"[W]hile there was an active secret police in Brussels, it was by no means the only strategy employed by the middle and upper classes to protect their society. In Belgium the state used other types of control ... far more than police repression to preserve order during the nineteenth century."

Maclaren, John, and Nicholas Hiley. "Nearer the Truth: The Search for Alexander Szek." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 4 (Oct. 1989): 813-826.

The authors take on the long-running legend of the activities and fate of Alexander Szek, thought to have stolen German codes from Belgium which later helped in breaking the Zimmermann telegram. Their research and analysis essentially shoot down most elements of the previous story. Definitive? Probably not, but in most of its elements better based than its predecessor myths.

2. World War II

3. Post-World War II

Brodeur, Jean-Paul, Peter Gill, and Dennis Töllborg, eds. Democracy, Law and Security:  Internal Security Services in Contemporary Europe.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 2003. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.

Peake, Studies 47.3 (2003), notes that this work is "drawn from papers presented at two symposia in Gothenburg, Sweden, that compare intelligence services in 10 countries:  Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.  The various chapters look at historical, organizational, and political differences.... In most cases, very little has been published in English about the services discussed, and that enhances the book's importance.  For students of intelligence, and especially counterintelligence, this is a very worthwhile contribution."

For Henderson, IJI&C 17.3, this work "provides useful background reference material on several less well-known European domestic security systems." However, "the index and bibliography ... are generally weak"; and the "collection lacks, except for Spain, organizational charts for the various national communities and individual services."

Matthijs, Herman.

1. "Intelligence Services in Belgium." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 4 (Aug. 2008): 552-576.

"In Belgium there are four services concerned with intelligence gathering, namely the State Security Service, the Customs Service, the Military Intelligence Service and the Police."

2. "Towards a New Secret Service in Belgium?" European Journal of Intelligence Studies 2 (2008): 67-86. [http://www.ejis.eu]

Thomas, Paul. Le KGB en Belgique. Brussels: Editions J.M. Collet, 1987.

Van Laethem, Wauter. " The Belgian Civil Intelligence Service: Roles, Powers, Organisation and Supervision." European Journal of Intelligence Studies 2 (2008): 1 ff.. [http://www.ejis.eu]

Verhaegen, Alix. "Belgium Security Service (BSS) [Sûreté de l'Etat (SE)]." Intelligence Watch Report Quarterly 2, no. 1 (1995): 3-5.

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