OTHER U.S. AGENCIES

Included here:

1. General

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

3. Department of Justice

4. Drug Enforcement Agency (and predecessor organizations)

5. Federal Aviation Authority

6. Federal Communications Commission

7. Immigration and Naturalization Service

1. General

Ottenberg, Miriam. The Federal Investigators. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1962.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

McKenna, Maryn. Beating Back the Devil: On the Front Lines with the Disease Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service. New York: Free Press, 2004.

DKR, AFIO WIN 24-04 (12 Jul. 2004), notes that the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), the rapid-response force of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was founded in 1951. "Highly trained[] and fiercely committed EIS professionals, including doctors, dentists, nurses and veterinarians, respond rapidly and travel to any area of the world to examine possible threats to public health. After 9/11, EIS investigated the anthrax attacks that were spread through the mails."

3. Department of Justice

Aftergood, Steven. "Justice Dept National Security Division Draws Criticism." Secrecy News, 28 Jul. 2008. [http://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy]

"The Department of Justice National Security Division (NSD) that was formed in 2006 by the merger of several DOJ intelligence and national security elements is attracting criticism from some intelligence officials who say that it is biased in favor of the FBI or, alternatively, that it lacks the agility that an intelligence organization needs."

4. Drug Enforcement Agency (and predecessor organizations)

Bacon, John. "The French Connection Revisited." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 4, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 507-523.

Jordan, Lara Jakes. "Audit: DEA Intelligence Analysts Lacking Security Clearances." Associated Press, 5 May 2008. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to an audit by the Justice Department's inspector general, released on 5 May 2008, "[t]welve percent of the DEA's intelligence analysts last year did not have the security clearances necessary or were otherwise unauthorized to do their jobs." The audit also concluded that the DEA "was slow to complete and share its intelligence reports with other government agencies, despite producing work that generally was praised as useful and effective.... An estimated 20,000 employees and contractors work for the DEA."

Kenney, Michael C. "Intelligence Games: Comparing the Intelligence Capabilities of Law Enforcement Agencies and Drug Trafficking Enterprises." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 212-243.

"While non-state criminal enterprises cannot match the technological sophistication of drug enforcement and intelligence agencies, they possess important advantages over their state adversaries, including the clandestine nature of narcotics trafficking, flatter decisionmaking hierarchies, and fewer bureaucratic restraints to action."

Kinder, Douglas C.

1. "Bureaucratic Cold Warrior: Harry J. Anslinger and Illicit Narcotics Traffic." Pacific Historical Review 50 (May 1981): 169- 191.

2. and William O. Walker, III. "Stable Force in a Storm: Harry J. Anslinger and United States Narcotic Foreign Policy, 1930-62." Journal of American History 72 (Mar. 1986): 98-127.

Levine, Michael. Deep Cover: The Inside Story of How DEA Infighting, Incompetence, and Subterfuge Lost Us the Biggest Battle of the Drug War. New York: Delacorte, 1990.

Petersen says that this book is an "[e]xpose with intelligence aspects, by [a] former DEA official."

McWilliams, John C. The Protestors: Harry J. Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1990.

McWilliams, John C., and Alan A. Block. "All the Commissioner's Men: The Federal Bureau of Narcotics and the Dewey-Luciano Affair, 1947-54." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 1 (Jan. 1990): 171-192.

Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Public Affairs Office. "Drug Enforcement Administration Element Becomes 16th Intelligence Community Member." ODNI News Release No. 6-06. Washington, DC: 17 Feb. 2006. [http://www.dni.gov/]

On 17 February 2006, DNI John D. Negroponte and Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales announced "the designation of the Office of National Security Intelligence," part of the DEA's Intelligence Division, "as the 16th member of the Intelligence Community (IC).... This designation does not grant DEA new authorities, but it does formalize the long-standing relationship between the DEA and the IC."

5. Federal Aviation Authority

Guill, Manuela. "Federal Aviation Administration Office of Civil Aviation Security Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 13, no. 3 (Summer 1992): 29-31.

6. Federal Communications Commission

Sterling, George E. "The U.S. Hunt for Axis Agent Radios." Studies in Intelligence 4, no. 2 (Spring 1960): 35-54.

The author discusses how the "routine policing of the ether" by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) "became in World War II a multi-purpose defense service and a far-flung counter-espionage operation." Clark comment: This is an interesting article on a liitle-known aspect of the clandestine war.

7. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Click for materials on the spy case of Immigration and Naturalization Service official Miriano Faget.

Bouscaren, Anthony T. The Security Aspects of Immigration Work. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University, 1959. [Petersen]

Larmer, Brook, and Melinda Liu. "Smuggling People: How a Star U.S. Official Found Himself on the Dark Side of the Global Immigration Game." Newsweek, 17 Mar. 1997, 34-36.

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