Click for materials dealing specifically with the allegations of spying for the PRC on the part of DOE scientist Wen Ho Lee. Click for additional materials on the fallout from the allegations of Chinese nuclear spying.
Materials presented in chronological order.
Trulock, Notra, III. "Intelligence and the Department of Energy: New Approaches for the 1990s." American Intelligence Journal 17, no. 1/2 (1996): 17-22.
Trulock is Director, Office of Energy Intelligence. The article includes a boxed subarticle on "The Evolution of Intelligence at the Department of Energy."
U. S. Department of Energy. "Press Release -- Secretary Pena Strengthens DOE Intelligence Programs: Establishes New Offices of Counterintelligence and Intelligence." 10 Feb. 1998. [http://www.energy.gov]
On 10 February 1998, Energy Secretary Federico Pena announced a reorganization of Department intelligence programs, to be implemented over the next four months, which "creates two new offices, an Office of Counterintelligence and an Office of Intelligence. Both will report directly to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Energy....
"The new Office of Counterintelligence ... will be headed by Edward Curran, currently a senior manager" at the FBI, "where he serves as a section chief in the National Security Division.... The new Office of Intelligence will be responsible for foreign intelligence analysis. Notra Trulock, the current director of energy intelligence, will continue in that capacity. Trulock is currently on an Intergovernmental Personnel Act assignment from the Los Alamos National Laboratory. There will be a competitive selection for a permanent director for the new office."
U. S. Department of Energy. "Press Release -- Richardson Names Director for DOE's Office of Intelligence." 5 Oct. 1998. [http://www.energy.gov]
Energy Secretary Bill Richardson has named Lawrence H. Sanchez to be the Department's Director of the Office of Intelligence. Sanchez will serve on detail from the CIA beginning at the end of October.
Widener, Andrea. "Anti-Spy Work Complex: Safeguards, Security Measures Are Not Like Movie Dramatics." San Jose Mercury News, 19 Apr. 1999. [http://www7.mercurycenter.com]
A quicky view of security measures at Los Alamos national laboratory.
Gertz, Bill, and Rowan Scarborough. "Inside the Ring: Spy News." Washington Times, 27 Aug. 1999.
According to a report to Congress by DCI George Tenet, the Department of Energy (DOE) has "developed a new system used by American spies around the world to communicate back to headquarters. The prototype system is a mobile, wireless, Intranet protocol-based computer communications network 'that incorporates low probability of detection/low probability of intercept characteristics.'" DOE also helped the U.S. Secret Service by "developing a prototype system used to tag and track vehicles. The chemical tag is sprayed onto target cars or trucks and can be tracked with special lights."
Risen, James. "Director of Nuclear Security Is Confirmed." New York Times, 15 Jun. 2000. [http://www.nytimes.com]
On 14 June 2000, the U.S. Senate confirmed Gen. John Gordon, currently CIA deputy director, as the first administrator of the new National Nuclear Security Administration. The previously stalled confirmation came amid furor over "news of the disappearance of two computer hard drives containing nuclear secrets from a vault at Los Alamos....
"Six managers at Los Alamos have been placed on a paid leave of absence as a result of the latest security lapse, including the head of nuclear weapons programs, Stephen M. Younger, the highest-ranking official in the group. Among the others placed on leave ... was the head of the government's Nuclear Emergency Search Team, or NEST, which is responsible for responding to nuclear accidents and nuclear-related terrorist threats.... The missing hard drives belonged to the NEST."
Loeb, Vernon. "Polygraph Program Underway At Energy." Washington Post, 16 Jul. 2000, A8. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
According to DOE Director of Counterintelligence Edward J. Curran, "[t]he Energy Department has administered polygraph examinations under a new federal law to 800 nuclear scientists and security workers since the beginning of the year without a single employee failing the 'lie detector' test."
Trulock, Notra. Code Name Kindred Spirit: Inside the Chinese Nuclear Espionage Scandals. New York: Encounter Books, 2002
Gertz, Washington Times, 17 Jan. 2003, notes that the author was the Energy Department's Director of Intelligence from 1994 to 1998. In his book, Trulock charges "that fired Los Alamos nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee provided sensitive weapons data to China during unreported meetings with nuclear-weapons scientists. The FBI, however, mishandled the counterespionage investigation" because Lee "and his wife worked as FBI informants" from 1985 to 1991.
For Peake, Studies 47.3, "[t]he press leaks; the bungled investigations by the FBI, DOE, and the independent commissions; and the coverups by DOE and the White House are all well documented" in this book. "It is a messy, unpleasant story of what happens when politics outweighs security and a whistle blower tries to set things right and loses."
Wald, Matthew L. "Widespread Radioactivity Monitoring Is Confirmed." New York Times, 24 Dec. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]
On 23 December 2005, the Justice Department confirmed that "[t]he F.B.I. and the Energy Department have conducted thousands of searches for radioactive materials at private sites around the country in the last three years." According to a federal official speaking on condition of anonymity, "the investigators have visited hundreds of sites in Washington, New York, Chicago, Detroit, Las Vegas and Seattle on multiple occasions, as well other locations for high-profile events like the Super Bowl. The surveillance was conducted outdoors, and no warrants were needed or sought."
Cumming, Alfred. Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 10 Apr. 2006.
In 1999, Congress "established a semi-autonomous agency -- the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) -- to oversee DOE's national-security related programs. Within NNSA, Congress established the Office of Defense Nuclear Counterintelligence to implement [italics in original] NNSA's counterintelligence program. Although DOE's existing Office of Counterintelligence develops CI policies for both agencies, it implements policy only at non-NNSA facilities. Some studies have questioned the effectiveness of a dual office structure in combating foreign espionage and have urged the adoption of an alternative structure."
Goodman, Michael S. "Sibling Rivalry: The Birth of the Post-War American Atomic Intelligence Community." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 289-301.
Following the failure to anticipate the Soviet test in 1949, "increased emphasis [was] placed on the CIA as the specific body responsible for atomic intelligence, with the AEC acting more as a technical advisor.... Every major subsequent Soviet test was observed." (footnotes omitted)
Cumming, Alfred. Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 14 Feb. 2007. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL31988.pdf.
On 30 October 2006, DOE "eliminated the use of polygraph testing for screening applicants for employment and incumbent employees without specific cause.... DOE said that instituting a 'specific-cause' standard will significantly reduce the number of individuals who will undergo polygraph testing. This report examines how DOE's new polygraph screening policy has evolved and reviews certain scientific findings with regard to the polygraph's accuracy."
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