NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE

Overviews

Burks, A. Roy. "Three Decades with the NRO." In Beyond Expectations -- Building an American National Reconnaissance Capability: Recollections of the Pioneers and Founders of National Reconnaissance, ed. Robert A. McDonald, 173-183. Bethesda, MD: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2002.

Haines, Gerald K. The National Reconnaissance Office: Its Origins, Creation and Early Years. Washington, DC: National Reconnaissance Office, 1997.

This is an institutional history with accompanying documentation.

Hall, R. Cargill.

1. The Air Force and the National Security Space Program, 1946-1988. Washington, DC: USAF Historical Research Center, 1988.

2. "The NRO in the 21st Century: Ensuring Global Information Supremacy." Quest: The History of Spaceflight 11, no. 3 (Aug. 2004).

Laurie, Clayton D. Congress and the National Reconnaissance Office. Chantilly, VA: Office of the Historian, National Reconnaissance Office, 2001. [http://www.nro.gov/history/csnr/programs/docs/prog-hist-04.pdf]

"The history of the NRO's interaction with Congress is closely intertwined with the security demands of the Cold War, the growth and development of the Intelligence Community as a whole, and with the American space program. In that setting, the novel relationship between the NRO and Congress has undergone significant changes over forty years, and it continues to evolve as each institution addresses the nation's intelligence demands and post Cold War security challenges of the twenty-first century."

McDonald, Robert A., ed. Beyond Expectations -- Building an American National Reconnaissance Capability: Recollections of the Pioneers and Founders of National Reconnaissance. Bethesda, MD: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2002.

According to Peake, Studies 48.4 (2004), this work brings together the oral histories of individuals identified as Pioneers and Founders for the NRO's 40th anniversary in 2000. Bob Kohler's contribution "is a masterpiece of little details describing monstrous technical and bureaucratic problems during the time when the CIA still played a major role in NRO imagery intelligence. It conveys the sense of the human and technical problems of the day with lessons that those now on duty would do well to remember." This is "a valuable history, well worth the attention of intelligence officers of all stripes."

Oder, Frederic C.E., James C. Fitzpatrick, and Paul E. Worthman. The Corona Story. Washington, DC: NRO, 1987.

Richelson, Jeffrey T. "Restructuring the NRO: From the Cold War's End to the 21st Century." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 4 (Winter 2002-2003): 496-539.

"[B]etween 1962 and 1988, the internal structure of the NRO remained remarkably stable." Since 1989, however, there have been multiple reviews of the NRO, and '[s]ignificant organizational changes have followed review group recommendations."

Wilhelm, Peter G. "Cutting Edge Work at the Naval Research Laboratory." In Beyond Expectations -- Building an American National Reconnaissance Capability: Recollections of the Pioneers and Founders of National Reconnaissance, ed. Robert A. McDonald, 155-161. Bethesda, MD: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2002.

Return to NRO Table of Contents

Return to Reconnaissance Table of Contents

Return to Main Table of Contents