MILITARY INTELLIGENCE

Tactical Intelligence

Materials concerning the individual U.S. services are in separate service-specific files found in the Military Intelligence Table of Contents.

Bonen, Zeev. "The Role of Target Acquisition in Combat Intelligence Past and Future." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1989): 119-126.

"[T]arget acquisition and damage assessment ... must be tailored to serve the needs of the new fire power and related tactics" associated with the "extended battle."

Bowen, Russell J., et. al. Tactical Order of Battle: A State-of-the-Art Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1975. [Petersen]

Buel, Larry V. "Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield." Military Review 67, no. 10 (1987): 24-33. [Petersen]

Burton, Ralph W. "Military Intelligence Support to Corps and the Air/Land Battle." Military Intelligence 7, no. 3 (1981): 6-8. [Petersen]

Colby, William E. "Tactical Intelligence: The Need for Improvement." Defense Intelligence Journal 1, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 75-80.

Demarest, Geoffrey B. "Tactical Intelligence in Low Intensity Conflict." Military Intelligence 11, no. 4 (1985): 11-20.

Ferris, John, and Michael I. Handel. "Clausewitz, Intelligence, Uncertainty and the Art of Command in Military Operations." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1995): 1-58.

This article explores "the connections between intelligence, the conduct of military operations and the art of command" (1) as reflected in the arguments of Clausewitz; (2) in the modern era, using Drea's MacArthur's Ultra as a case study of the use and misuse of intelligence and (3) in the future. The authors suggest that intelligence can be used to reduce uncertainty and thereby affect the actions of generals. The article also contains a detailed "review" of the merits of Drea's work.

Handel, Michael I. "Intelligence and Military Operations." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 2 (Apr. 1990): 1-95.

This is the author's lead article to introduce a Special Issue of the journal devoted to the subject of the title. The lengthy article is a self-contained monograph and is well worth reading on its own for its review of the theoretical and practical relationship between intelligence activities and the waging of war.

Handel, Michael I. War Strategy and Intelligence. London: Frank Cass, 1989.

Surveillant 1.1 notes that this work contains "[t]heoretical essays on different dimensions of intelligence in war." Three common denominators are identified: "the impact of technology..., the political nature of war, and the limits of rational analysis in the study of war."

According to Dockrill, I&NS 6.2, Handel is seeking to revise those areas of Clausewitz' On War (1832) "that have become obsolete or need extensive revision as a result of the passage of time." Because Clausewitz discounted the role of intelligence, the author deals with this aspect in "great detail.... Handel has produced a compelling theoretical framework encompassing the political, strategic and tactical dimensions" of intelligence in 20th century warfare.

Handel, Michael I., ed.

1. "Special Issue on 'Intelligence and Military Operations.'" Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 2 (Apr. 1990): entire issue.

This Special Issue includes Handel's lengthy and useful lead essay relating intelligence activities to the waging of war in theory and practice; two articles on the U.S. Civil War; two articles on World War I; and seven articles on World War II.

2. Intelligence and Military Operations. London: Frank Cass, 1990.

This book was first published as a special issue of the journal Intelligence and National Security, vol 5, no. 2 (Apr. 1990) (see above).

Heymont, Irving. Combat Intelligence in Modern Warfare. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1960.

Pforzheimer finds "very few revealing conclusions or new ideas."

Lamberson, Eric L. "The Tactical Analysis Team." Military Intelligence 21, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1995): 12-17.

Marburger, Joan C. "Defense Department Partners with Industry for Signals Intelligence." Signal 54, no. 4 (Dec. 1999): 79-80.

NSA "is spearheading a U.S. Defense Department effort to develop, with commercial assistance, joint tactical signals intelligence systems.... A basic tenet of this architecture is to select standards that are widely accepted and proven by commercial use.... A Defense Department policy supports JASA [Joint Airborne Signals Intelligence Architecture] by requiring interoperability between existing and future SIGINT systems, connectivity between national and tactical systems, and modernization of existing airborne SIGINT systems."

Paschall, Joseph F. "Tactical Information Operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom." Marine Corps Gazette 88 (Mar. 2004): 56-59.

Romine, B. Harl. "Intelligence Data for Tactical Commanders." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1994): 30-38.

This article "addresses some of the military intelligence (SIGINT) and communications systems and networks being developed to enable the Services and Commands to fight effectively in an environment heavily impacted by new weapons and information technologies."

Wagner, Arthur L. The Service of Security and Information. Kansas City, MO: Hudson-Kimberly, 1893. 3d ed., 1896. 9th ed., 1903. 14th ed. Kansas City, MO: Franklin Hudson, n.d.

Petersen calls this the "first American book on tactical intelligence." According to Constantinides, this multi-edition work by the head of the War Department's Bureau of Military Intelligence was primarily a "tactical military manual covering such military practices and methods as reconnaissance, patrols, and advance and rear guards." He treats intelligence as an arm of military operations.

See "Arthur L. Wagner: The Man Who Wrote the Book on Intelligence" at the Huachuca History Program under "Masters of the Intelligence Art": http://www.huachuca.army.mil/sites/History/PDFS/MWAGNER.PDF.

Zindar, John M. "The Tactical Intelligence Officer in LIC." Military Intelligence 11, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1985): 46-47.

The task of the tactical intelligence officer in low-intensity conflict environments.

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