MILITARY INTELLIGENCE

Military Operations in the 2000s

Operations in Afghanistan

(Operation Enduring Freedom)

Reportage

2001 - 2003

Materials arranged chronologically.

Calabresi, Massimo. "The Bin Laden Capture that Never Was." Time, 20 Mar. 2000, 24.

A Presidentially approved plan for the CIA to help Pakistan organize a unit to slip into Afghanistan and capture Osama Bin Laden never got off the ground because of Pakistani footdragging.

Clark, James, Tony Allen-Mills, and Stephen Grey. "SAS Troops Clash with Taliban Unit Deep Inside Afghanistan." Sunday Times (London), 23 Sep. 2001. [http://www.sunday-times.co.uk]

"SAS troops in Afghanistan have been fired upon by Taliban soldiers.... Nobody was hurt, military sources said, adding that the gunfire had been 'more symbolic than directed'. They suggested that the small SAS team had 'spooked' Taliban soldiers near Kabul, who had fired indiscriminately before fleeing.... SAS troopers, together with members of MI6 and the CIA, are working with the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance in the search for Osama Bin Laden."

Fenton, Ben. "CIA Tries to Bribe Taliban to Swap Sides." Telegraph (London), 11 Oct. 2001. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"CIA agents were reported [on 10 October 2001] to be trying to bribe and cajole Taliban commanders to turn against the regime in the south and east of Afghanistan."

Bruner, Edward F., Christopher C. Bolkcum, and Ronald O'Rourke. Special Operations Forces in Operation Enduring Freedom: Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 15 Oct. 2001. [http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/6208.pdf]

The issues identified are intelligence support; work with resistance forces; funding, equipment, and organization; personnel retention; and joint and combined operations.

Ackerman, Robert K. "Commercial Imagery Aids Afghanistan Operations." Signal, Dec. 2001, 16 ff. [http://www.afcea.org/signal/]

Cloud, David S. "CIA Supplies Anti-Taliban Forces in South." Wall Street Journal, 7 Dec. 2001, A4.

Goodman, Glenn W. "The Power of the Word: U.S. Special Operations Forces Used Leaflets and Radio Broadcasts to Sway Afghans." Armed Forces Journal International 139 (February 2002): 30-31.

Ackerman, Robert K. "Technology Empowers Information Operations in Afghanistan." Signal, Mar. 2002, 17 ff. [http://www.afcea.org/signal/]

Newman, Richard J. "The Little Predator that Could." Air Force Magazine, Mar. 2002, 48-53.

Use of the Predator UAV in Afghanistan.

O'Hanlon, Michael E. "A Flawed Masterpiece." Foreign Affairs 81, no. 3 (May-Jun. 2002): 47-63.

"Operation Enduring Freedom has been, for the most part, a masterpiece of military creativity and finesse.... [However,] it has apparently failed to achieve a key war goal: capturing or killing Osama bin Laden and other top enemy leaders.... [T]he prospects for success ... were reduced considerably by U.S. reliance on Pakistan forces and Afghan militias for sealing off enemy escape routes."

Moore, J. Daniel. "CIA Support to Operation Enduring Freedom" Military Intelligence (Jul.-Sep. 2002).

Briscoe, C. H. "Coalition Humanitarian Liaison Cells and PSYOP (Psychological Operations) Teams in Afghanistan." Special Warfare 15 (Sep. 2002): 36-38.

Jones, Frank L. "Army SOF in Afghanistan: Learning the Right Lessons." Joint Forces Quarterly 33 (Winter 2002-03): 16-22.

"The successes of military operations in Afghanistan are being jeopardized by misreading them. Although Special Operations Forces are credited with defeating Taliban and al Qaeda foces, too much emphasis can be put on coordinating ground and air attacks while recruiting anti-Taliban fighters is underestimated. The latter capacity resulted from employing SOF assets in unconventional warfare.... The rise of insurgent and irredentist movements..., coupled with asymmetric threats, demands a strategic vision for unconventional warfare."

McInnes, Colin. "A Different Kind of War? September 11 and the United States' Afghan War." Review of International Studies 29, no. 2 (2003): 165-184.

Stallings, Ron and Michael Foley. "CI and HUMINT Operations in Support of Operation Enduring Freedom." Military Intelligence 29 (Oct.-Dec. 2003): 43-46.

The authors discuss the value of counterintelligence and human intelligence operations (including interrogation) in Afghanistan in 2003.

Pincus, Walter. "2 CIA Employees Killed in Ambush: Ex-Special Forces Officers Worked in Eastern Afghanistan." Washington Post, 29 Oct. 2003, A20. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

The CIA announced on 28 October 2003 that William Carlson and Christopher Glenn Mueller, "former Special Forces officers working as contract employees in counterterrorism for the CIA[,] were killed in an ambush in eastern Afghanistan" on 25 October 2003. "The two were involved in what became a six-hour firefight between Taliban rebels and U.S.-led coalition and Afghan forces." See also, Douglas Jehl, "Two C.I.A. Operatives Killed in an Ambush in Afghanistan." New York Times, 29 Oct. 2003.

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