Military Intelligence. "MI in Bosnia: Support to 'Joint Endeavor.'" 22, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1996): Entire issue.
1. Collin A. Agee, "Joint STARS in Bosnia: Too Much Data, Too Little Intel?" pp. 6-10, 40-41.
The Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS or JSTARS) deployed in Bosnia in December 1995 faced a very different situation than the one that had been dealt with so successfully by its predecessor system in Operation Desert Storm. The system was not a tactical success in the Bosnian environment, but it did serve as a deterrent to combatants' freedom to violate the Dayton Accord.
2. George K. Gramer, Jr., "Operation Joint Endeavor: Combined-Joint Intelligence in Peace Enforcement Operations," pp. 11-14.
"Contributing to the intelligence frustration in the theater was the proliferation of intelligence entities by nations and agencies.... In Sarajevo, there were at least ten national intelligence centers primarily dedicated to providing intelligence releasable only to their own nations.... Human intelligence (HUMINT) was clearly the number one collector in theater.... NATO-releasable SIGINT reporting consistently was a day late and a dollar short.... Imagery intelligence (IMINT) ... was [generally] sufficient and satisfactory." However, an excess of tactical reconnaissance assets were deployed in theater, and "the resultant products were often less than satisfactory."
3. Bruce A. Niedrauer, "Joint STARS Support to Special Operations Command," pp. 15-17.
A Ground Station Module (GSM) was deployed to the Special Operations Command Implementation Force (SOCIFOR) to provide "near-real-time access via satellite communications (SATCOMs) to Joint STARS imagery."
4. James V. Hintz, III, and Lester W. Pinkney, "Operation Joint Endeavor: Logistics Supporting the GSM [Ground Station Module] Task Force," pp. 18-21, 41.
5. Daniel Villeneuve, in collaboration with Marc-André Lefebvre, "Intelligence and the United Nations: Lessons from Bosnia -- A Canadian Experience," pp. 22-25.
The primary author was the intelligence officer for the 3d Battalion, Royal 22d Regiment, deployed in Bosnia 30 April-30 October 1995.
6. Roger D. Marshall, BEM, "Operation Grapple: British Armed Forces in United Nations Protection Force," pp. 25-26, 57-58.
The British force first deployed to Croatia and Bosnia in October 1992 with the task of escorting United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) humanitarian convoys. Other tasks would follow.
7. Kristin M. Baker, "Operation Joint Endeavor: Joint Stars in the Balkans," pp. 27-29.
The terrain in Bosnia-Herzegovina presents particular challenges to the Joint STARS collection system. Nevertheless, the system allowed its users to track the absence of gross violations of the Dayton Peace Accord.
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