2. Operation Provide Comfort (Kurdish refugees)
3. Operation Uphold Democracy (Haiti)
Allen, Robert J. "Intelligence Support for Peace Operations." In Intelligence for Multilateral Decision and Action, ed. Russell G. Swenson. Washington, DC: Joint Military Intelligence College, 1997.
Bowden, Mark. Killing Pablo: The Hunt for the World's Greatest Outlaw. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.
According to Wiant, Studies 46.1, this work focuses on the effort by U.S. law enforcement and intelligence organizations and Colombian authorities to track down Medellin drug kingpin Pablo Escobar. The author "details the activities of Centra Spike ... and Delta Force ... in their 16-month campaign." The sourcing of operational information is, as might be expected, uneven; and "the reader will have some difficulty in sorting out fact from speculation.... Nevertheless, the author has produced a useful study of how a well integrated program of human and technical intelligence collection ... can take law enforcement operations to the narcotrafficker's doorstep."
Boyd, H. Allen [COL/USA]. "Joint Intelligence in Support of Peace Operations." Military Intelligence (Jan.-Mar. 1999).
Gibbings, Thomas, Donald Hurley, and Scott Moore. "Interagency Operations Centers: An Opportunity We Can't Ignore." Parameters, Winter 1998, 99-112.
"This article briefly examines the US government's interagency culture, looks at how the military anticipates or reacts to civil-military operational requirements, and proposes ... establishing a full interagency team within the headquarters of each US regional commander-in-chief."
Lose, James M. "National Intelligence Support Teams." Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000): 87-96.
Unconventional settings for military operations "compel the [field] commander to rely more heavily on his intelligence officer" than might have been the case in conventional combat operations. The NIST concept reflects the lessons learned in Desert Shield/Desert Storm. "A NIST is normally composed of personnel from DIA, NSA, NIMA, and the CIA who are deployed upon request by the military commander to facilitate the flow of all-source intelligence between a Joint Task Force (JTF) and Washington, DC."
Skelton, Ike. "Intelligence Support of Military Operations." Joint Forces Quarterly, Spring 1998, 17-22.
U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Intelligence Support to Military Operations. Joint Pub. 2-01. Washington, DC: 1996.
Costa, Christopher P. "Changing Gears: Special Operations Intelligence Support to OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT." Military Intelligence 18, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1992): 24-28.
Kurdish refugee situation following Gulf War.
Drachman, Edward R., and Alan Shank. Presidents and Foreign Policy: Countdown to Ten Controversial Decisions. Ithaca, NY: SUNY Press, 1997.
Clark comment: The authors offer a case study of one major decision for each president from Truman to Clinton. It is possible to argue that there are better potential cases for each president than the ones selected for study, but those chosen are interestingly fitted into the authors' novel countdown approach. Chapter 10 considers President Clinton's decision to use the U.S. military to restore Aristide as Haitian president.
Larson, APSR 92.1, appreciates the authors' efforts to "present more objective criteria" than is normally the case in decision-making evaluation. Their evaluation scheme "seems plausible and reasonable on the face," but "it does not always work well when applied to specific cases." Nevertheless, "the case studies are well researched, concise, and provocative."
Epstein, Stephen M., R.S. Cronin, and J.G. Pulley. "JTF (Joint Task Force) Haiti: A United Nations Foreign Internal Defense Mission." Special Warfare 7, no. 3 (Jul. 1994): 2-9. [Gibish]
Hays, Margaret Daly, and Gary F. Wheatley [RADM/USN (Ret.)]. Interagency and Political-Military Dimensions of Peace Operations: Haiti -- A Case Study. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, n.d. [Text of this work available at http://www.ndu.edu]
Kretchik, Walter E., Robert F. Baumann, and John T. Fishel. Invasion, Intervention, "Intervasion": A Concise History of the U.S. Army in Operation Uphold Democracy. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Press, 1998.
Cohen, FA 78.3 (May-Jun. 1999), sees this as a "scholarly and systematic account of the 1994 American-dominated intervention in Haiti that candidly explores the problems encountered there by the U.S. Army.... Despite some awkward passages, including a heavy-handed analysis of the operation couched in hoary and irrelevant terms..., this is a first-rate study."
Riccardelli, Richard F. "News from the Front: Warfighter Intelligence and Combat Operations." Defense Intelligence Journal 4, no. 2 (Fall 1995): 31-43. "Warfighter Intelligence for Operations Other Than War." American Intelligence Journal 17, no. 3/4 (1997): 49-54.
Concerns intelligence for Operation Uphold Democracy, the planned airborne operation into Haiti in September 1994. "From the commanding general to the paratrooper, an unparalleled quantity and diversity of information on the enemy, weather and terrain was provided."
Snyder, Lynda [CAPT/USA], and David P. Warshaw [CAPT/USA]. "Force Protection: Integrating Civil Affairs and Intelligence." Military Intelligence 21, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1995): 26-28.
Urquhart, Martin I. The Effectiveness of Human Intelligence in Operation Uphold Democracy. Ft. Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.
Whitney, Kathleen M. "SIN, FRAPH, and the CIA: U.S. Covert Action in Haiti." Southwestern Journal of Law and Trade in the Americas 3 (Fall 1996): 303ff.
"[C]overt involvement in the creation and perpetuation of relationships with people and groups who are responsible for human rights abuses do not comport with international norms allowing self-defense."
Wilson, Thomas R. [RADM/USN] "Joint Intelligence and Uphold Democracy." Joint Forces Quarterly 7 (Spring 1995): 54-59.
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