U.S. Marine Corps


On 27 April 2000, Marine Corps Commandant Gen. J.L. Jones announced the establishment of an Intelligence Department, to be headed by a general officer, at U.S. Marine Corps Headquarters. In his announcement, General Jones referred to "the emblematic and practical significance of the Commandant having a 'G2' who can serve as both a proponent for intelligence, surveillance and reconaissance inside the combat development process and as the focal point for leveraging intelligence community support for our warfighting capability." ALMAR 021/00, dated 27 Apr. 2000.

Effective 1 February 2001, the status of the Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA) was changed "from a field activity to a command." MARADMIN 079/01, dated 16 Feb. 2001.

On 31 July 2002, Marine Corps Commandant Gen. J.L. Jones announced that "[t]he Marine Corps intelligence resources in MCIA and those Marines in the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) and National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) will be integrated..., effectively quadrupling MCIA's size to over 1,000 Marines, civilian Marines, and contractors." In addition, the Marine Support Battalion (MARSPTBN) "is renamed as Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion" and is administratively subordinated to MCIA. "A CI/Humint company will be formed under MCIA to provide administrative control of those Marines in the Defense Humint Service and those serving in FCIP-funded billets." GENADMIN, dated 31 Jul. 2002

All of the above are available at

Baldwin, Al [COL/USMC]. "1st Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) in Operation Iraqi Freedom." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 19, no. 3 (Sep. 2003): 11-12.

The regimental combat teams (RCTs) were provided "with the ability to directly receive most of the signals from the theater and tactical sensors. By cutting out the middlemen ... the intelligence got to the using unit much faster and in time to have a chance to shape the local action."

Braden, Nate. "Marine Corps Signals Intelligence." Marine Corps Gazette, 84 (Apr. 2000): 62-65.

Decker, Michael, and Christopher B. Batts [CAPT/USMC]. "Marine Corps Counterintelligence Support to the Warfighter: Past, Present, and Future." American Intelligence Journal 20, nos. 1 & 2 (Winter 2000-2001): 21-26.

"[E]ven with advances in technolgy, the core competencies of Marine Corps CI will continue to be intelligence collection focused on espionage, sabotage, subversion and terrorism."

Ennis, Michael E. [BGEN/USMC]

1. "The Future of Intelligence." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 16, no. 4 (Oct. 2000): 1-2.

The Intelligence Community "should focus more of its effort on ... 'operationalizing' intelligence -- that is, making it more usable, understandable, and accessible to its consumers, the operators and planners.... [T]he first step in operationalizing intelligence needs to be a physical integration of intelligence personnel within critical warfighting functions.... The second step ... is to build intelligence products with the end user (the operator/planner) in mind.... The last step ... is for the commanders to take a more active role in intelligence."

2. "The Future of Intelligence." Marine Corps Gazette, Oct. 1999, 46-47.

An earlier version of the above.

Guenther, John.

1. "Marine Corps Intelligence: Another Step Forward." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 20, no. 1 (Feb. 2004): 13-15.

"With the ... assumption of duties by Brigadier General Mike Ennis as Director of Operations, Defense Intelligence Agency and head of the Defense Humint Service, the Marine Corps continues its progressive emergence as a full contributing member of the national and defense communities."

2. "The Marine Corps, ONI, and Humint." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 19, no. 4 (Dec. 2003): 12-14.

"This article highlights [the] ONI roots [of Marine Corps CI/Humint intelligence] in the first three decades of the 20th century and, more specifically, in [the service's] TF-157 experience in the mid-60s."

Liebl, Vernie. "The Intelligence Plan: An Update." Marine Corps Gazette, 85 (Jan. 2001): 54-59.

Marx, Paul H. "Proficient Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence Analysts Are Expedititonary Warfare Necessities." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130, no. 2 (Feb. 2004): 44-45. Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 20, no. 1 (Feb. 2004): 9-10.

"Within the Marine Corps and Navy,... there is a chronic scarcity of proficient, highly trained intelligence analysts to support an increasing operational tempo around the world.... The best way to train our intelligence analysts to decipher, interpret, identify, and reasonably predict the capabilities (and intentions) of potential adversaries is through improved education."

Paschall, Joseph F. "Tactical Information Operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom." Marine Corps Gazette 88 (Mar. 2004): 56-59.

Reiley, Matthew A. [MAJ/USMC] "Transforming USMC Intelligence to Address Irregular Warfare." American Intelligence Journal 26, no. 1 (Summer 2008): 50-59.

"The recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan have demonstrated that the subtleties necessary to conduct IW [irregular warfare] are more complex than those required for MCO [Major Combat Operations]."

Reynolds, Robert W. [MAJ/USMC] "Intelligence Support to Distributed Operations." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 22, no. 1 (Jan. 2006): 41-43. [Reprinted from Marine Corps Gazette.]

The author surveys "how Marine Corps intelligence might accept the challenge of working on a wider, more dispersed battlefield." The Distributed Operations "construct will create distinct challenges in two major areas -- information overload and intelligence distribution."

Schultz, Fred L. "MarSOC: Just Call Them Marines." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 132, no. 1 (Jan. 2006): 48-50.

Interview with Brig Gen. Dennis J. Hejlik, USMC, commanding general of the Marine Corps Special Operations Command (MarSOC), newly established as part of U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM). The unit is being organized with an estimated 2,500 members in a regiment with two special operations battalions. A total of nine special operations companies will be split four on the east coast and five on the west coast.

Wright, Evan. Generation Kill: Devil Dogs, Iceman, Captain America, and the New Face of American War. New York: Putnam, 2004. New York: Berkley, 2005. [pb]

The author was an embedded journalist with a platoon of First Reconnaissance Battalion Marines in the invasion of Iraq. This book is an expanded version of a three-part series in Rolling Stone magazine.

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