Click for materials dealing with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). The organization's name was changed from the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), effective 24 November 2003.
Ackerman, Robert K.
1. "Balkans Serve as Proving Ground for Operational Imagery Support." Signal, Oct. 1999, 17 ff. [http://www.afcea.org/signal/]
2. "Commercial Imagery Aids Afghanistan Operations." Signal, Dec. 2001, 16 ff. [http://www.afcea.org/signal/]
Boxhall, Peter. "Aerial Photography and Photographic Interpreters: 1915 to the Gulf War." Army Quarterly and Defense Journal, Apr. 1992, 204-209.
Clegg, Robert H. "Imagery Intelligence at Echelons Above Corps." Military Intelligence 18, no. 2 (Apr.-Jun 1992): 20-22.
Data: Magazine of Military RDT&E Management. Editors. "Aerial Reconnaissance." 10 (Apr. 1965), 7-41. [Petersen]
Defense Intelligence Journal. "Imagery Intelligence (IMINT)." 8, no. 1 (Summer 1999): Entire issue.
Click for the individual articles in this issue.
Harmon, Neil A. [LTJG/USNR] "The Vital Role of Imagery in Strike Missions." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 14, no. 4 (Oct. 1998): 8-9.
"Imagery is a key ingredient to the mission's success throughout the entire planning and striking process, from first opening the target folder to egressing the target area."
Israel, Kenneth [MGEN/USAF, Director/DARO]. "The Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (Autumn-Winter 1994): 61-66.
DARO was created on 6 November 1993 "to unify existing airborne reconnaissance architectures and enhance the management and acquisition of manned and unmanned airborne assets.... The DARO is a development and acquisition organization." See also: Dwight Williams [DD/DARO], "Amplifying Remarks," pp. 66-67.
Krygiel, Annette J. [D/CIO]
1. "The Central Imagery Office." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (Autumn-Winter 1994): 68-71.
"Today's [imagery] systems are fragmented and do not form a coherent, responsive, flexible, efficient and effective system to serve the needs of all imagery users." The goal is "a consumer-driven corporate structure with integrated global communications and delivery systems."
2. "The US Imagery System: Accelerated Architecture Acquisition Initiative." American Intelligence Journal 16, no. 2/3 (Autumn-Winter 1995): 41-46.
The author discusses the Accelerated Architecture Acquisition Initiative (A3I) and Pilot A3I, designed to enhance support to consumers with imagery products.
3. "Networks Enhance Tactical Warrior's Imagery Support." Signal, May 1996, 65 ff. [http://www.afcea.org/signal/]
Marshall, Mark G. Round Peg, Square Holes: The Nature of Imagery Analysis. Washington, DC: Joint Military Intelligence College, 1997.
NMIA Newsletter. Editors. "CIO Introduces Image Product Archive." 10, no. 2 (1995): 23.
The first of a series of computerized imagery archives has been opened at USACOM's Atlantic Intelligence Command, Norfolk, VA. "The archive ... will enable deployed military users to access an electronic inventory of imagery and imagery-derived products using commercial, off-the-shelf computer systems.... By the end of 1996, the IPA will be fielded worldwide."
Rajan, S. Danny, Alan T. Chien, and Bernard V. Brower. "Advanced Commercial Imagery Compression for Future Systems." Defense Intelligence Journal 8, no. 1 (Summer 1999): 33-53.
"Implementing an end-to-end -- any collector to any user -- system as part of future imagery architectures will require significant improvements in the way that imagery is disseminated, exploited, and archived. A key enabling technology ... is image compression."
Shortsleeve, Brian J. [1LT/USMC] "Realtime Imagery for Ground Commanders in Bosnia-Herzegovina." Marine Corps Gazette, Apr. 1998, 34-35.
Discusses the use of mobile remote receive stations (RRSs) to downlink live imagery from Navy P-3C Orions to remotely situated troops, and suggests that the same configuration would be an asset to Marine expeditionary unit (MEU) operations in littoral areas where P-3Cs are operating.
Sibbert, Daniel B. "Commercial Remote-Sensing: Open Source Imagery Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 14, nos. 2 & 3 (Spring-Summer 1993): 37-40.
Smith, Bruce A. "Pentagon Weighs Key Reconnaissance Issues Highlighted by Gulf War." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 Apr. 1991, 78-79.
The Air Force came out of the Gulf War with a strong belief that tactical reconnaissance needs to be developed further. There is also a feeling that steps are needed to speed up the flow of intelligence to theater commanders from a variety of sensor systems.
Smith, Dan. "Imagery Intelligence." Military Intelligence 20, no. 2 (Apr.-Jun. 1994): 13-14, 40.
Broadly general; emphasizes terminology.
U.S. Department of Defense. Central Imagery Office. "Future Direction for the United States Imagery System." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 3 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 31-34.
The "present imagery resources were developed primarily to support the needs of the President and senior national security decisionmakers. Not surprisingly, attempts to apply these resources and supporting infrastructure to support war fighters have fallen short. Furthermore, today's exploitation and production capabilities are fragmented and prone to duplication. They neither form a coherent, responsive, or flexible system to serve the needs of the war fighter, nor do they adequately support an increasingly diverse set of civil imagery users. The challenge for the CIO is to lead the imagery community to design a United States Imagery System that responds to [current] trends, takes advantage of state-of-the-art advances in technology, and is responsive to imagery user needs. The USIS architecture should address the full imagery cycle: requirements management, collection, processing, production, and delivery. It will fully integrate management of all elements of the cycle, whether during war or peace."
U.S. Department of Defense. Director of Administration and Management. Central Imagery Office. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 1993.
Surveillant 4.1: Directive establishing the Central Imagery Office (CIO) in Department of Defense.
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