American Intelligence Journal

American Intelligence Journal. "Defense Counterintelligence." 20, nos. 1 & 2 (Winter 2000-2001): Entire issue.


1. Jim Linnen [COL/USA (Ret.)], "Department of Defense Counterintelligence (CI): A DoD CI Staff Perspective," pp. 1-5.

"Implementing the conclusions of the CI 21 interagency review is the single, most important effort of the DoD and National CI Community in the coming year.... Within DoD CI our single most important initiative is the establishment" of a Joint CI Center (JCIC).

2. William R. Arnold [COL/USAF (Ret.)], "The AFOSI Counterintelligence Mission: Past, Present, and the Future," pp. 7- 19.

The Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) was formed on 1 August 1948. It provides "a full suite of investigative (criminal and fraud) and counterintelligence (CI) support to the Air Force." The author "examines the origins and history [of AFOSI] while focusimg on its CI mission.... The emphasis is on major post-WWII conflicts and [AFOSI's] CI structure today and in the future."

3. Michael Decker and Christopher B. Batts [CAPT/USMC], "Marine Corps Counterintelligence Support to the Warfighter: Past, Present, and Future," pp. 21-26.

"[E]ven with advances in technolgy, the core competencies of Marine Corps CI will continue to be intelligence collection focused on espionage, sabotage, subversion and terrorism."

4. Francis Buzek [MAJ/USA], "Army Counterintelligence 2000," pp. 27-33.

"There are approximately 240 CI personnel authorizations in the Army's 10 Divisions, 230 in its 4 Corps, and 1200 in its strategic units." The three major mission areas are force protection, technology protection, and infrastructure protection.

5. Stuart Herrington [COL/USA (Ret.)], "Reviving DoD Strategic Counterintelligence: An Appeal to the 'NCIX,'" pp. 35-40.

The author expresses concerns about an overemphasis on "tactically-oriented CI activities to support deployed joint task forces." He offers the Army's Foreign Counterintelligence Activity (FCA) as a potential model for the National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX).

6. Roy K. Jonkers [COL/USAF (Ret.)], "Presidential Decision Directive CI 21 Counterintelligence," pp. 41-42.

Provides the substance of the Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) entitled "U.S. Counterintelligence Effectiveness for the 21st Century," released by the White on 5 January 2001.

7. Brian A. Cashman, "Naval Counterintelligence: Investigating the Walker Espionage Crime Scene," pp. 43-45. "Investigating the Walker Espionage Crime Scene." Intelligencer 11, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 29-31

The author surveys "the crime scene examination [in which he participated] of John A. Walker's home by a joint FBI/US Naval Investigative Service team of special agents searching for evidence of espionage."

8. Terry Thompson, "Security and Motivational Factors in Espionage," pp. 47-56. "Security and Motivational Factors in Espionage." Intelligencer 11, no. 1 (Jul. 2000): 1-9.

The author addresses the "why" question in CI -- why would an individual risk everything in a crime that carries maximum penalties and an intense stigma? In the 1930s, 1940s, and the Cold War period, ideology was often the dominant motivation for commiting treason. Today, "recent trends indicate that pursuit of money is the most common motivation in espionage." Other motivations include anger/revenge, ego, and ethnicity.

9. S. Eugene Poteat, "Counterintelligence: Spy vs. Spy, Traitor vs. Traitor," pp. 57-62.

This is a broad (and opinionated) sweep across the CI landscape from the Revolutionary War to the present.

10. David M. Keithly, "Counterintelligence and Humint in the U.S. Civil War," pp. 63-70.

This article supplies a quick look at some of the better known spies of the Civil War.

11. Defense Security Service, "Recent Espionage Cases, 1975-1999," pp. 73-74.

Provides list of "espionage case names."

12. Hayden B. Peake, "Soviet Espionage in America: The VENONA Progeny," pp. 75-81.

Includes book reviews of Benson and Warner, eds.; West; Ball and Horner; Haynes and Klehr; Weinstein and Vassilliev; Albright and Kunstel; and Romerstein and Breindell.

13. Kevin C. Ruffner, "CIC Records: A Valuable Tool for Researchers," pp. 83-87. "CIC Records: A Valuable Tool for Researchers." Center for the Study of Intelligence Bulletin 11 (Summer 2000): 11-16. [].

"While the historical community has pressed for the declassification of records from the World War II-era Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the post-war CIA," the records of the U.S. Army's Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC), "in fact, promise to shed even greater light on American intelligence activities than has been previously recognized....

"While CIC concentrated on counterintelligence during World War II, it expanded into the positive collection of intelligence behind the Iron Curtain in the years after 1945.... Even into the 1950s, CIA and CIC were still trying to reconcile their intelligence missions overseas in order to avoid duplication and to coordinate the recruitment of assets....

"The CIC underwent a major expansion during the Korean War. The 1950s proved to be CIC's heyday; it enjoyed ample resources and attracted the best and brightest soldiers brought in by a draft-era Army. The expansion of military intelligence units throughout the world and their collection activities in the 1950s also resulted in growing numbers of CIC records -- a legacy of great importance to historians."

The CIC "documentary record is scattered throughout classified and declassified holdings in numerous agencies of the Federal Government. Two of the agencies, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the Investigative Records Repository (IRR) of the US Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM), hold the bulk of the surviving CIC records. Researchers, however, should be aware that many CIC records remain in the possession of other US government agencies, primarily those in the Intelligence Community. Likewise, researchers should consider that other repositories of unofficial records, such as the U.S. Army Military History Institute, may contain information about the Counter Intelligence Corps."

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