Coast Guard

From 2002

The U.S. Coast Guard became a component of the new Department of Homeland Security in 2002.

Ackerman, Robert K. "Naval Intelligence Ramps up Activities." Signal, Feb. 2009. []

Clark comment: The online version updates the article carried in the magazine's February issue.

"The U.S. Navy is revamping its intelligence structure with command upgrades and a new set of priorities designed to rebuild naval intelligence. This effort includes the creation of a new maritime intelligence office that will move the Navy out of providing service-specific intelligence fully into the realm of national intelligence....

"The Navy is upgrading the position of director of naval intelligence to vice admiral. Vice Adm. David J. Dorsett, USN, is the new director.... In addition, the Office of Naval Intelligence receives four new subordinate commands: the Nimitz Operational Intelligence Center, the Farragut Technical Analysis Center, the John F. Kennedy Irregular Warfare Center and the Grace Hopper Information Services Center. These four centers will stand up around the end of [February 2009]....

"Out of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) and the U.S. Coast Guard Intelligence Coordination Center (ICC) in Suitland, Maryland, is coming a National Maritime Intelligence Center, or NMIC.... The NMIC director will be responsible to the director of national intelligence. Adm. Dorsett offers that the NMIC will be on par with the National Counterterrorism Center and the National Counterproliferation Center.... The goal is for this new center to have a much broader interagency flavor."

See Regina A. McNamara (CDR/USCG), "Ribbon Cutting Establishes the New Martime Intelligence Center," Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 25, no. 2 (Apr. 2009): 4-5. The NMIC's first Director is RADM Ann Gilbride.

Lipton, Eric. "Report Sees Confusion Likely in a Sea Attack by Terrorists." New York Times, 4 Apr. 2006. []

A report released on 3 April 2006 by the Department of Justice inspector general warned that "[p]otentially disastrous confusion could arise during a terrorist attack on a cruise ship or ferry because of a power struggle" between the FBI and the Coast Guard "over who would be in charge." After 2001, the Coast Guard, a part of DHS, "created 13 specialized teams based at major ports around the nation ... [and] trained to respond to a hostage situation or other maritime terrorism.... The F.B.I., a division of the Justice Department, has 14 of what it calls enhanced maritime SWAT teams and a separate hostage rescue team trained to respond to maritime terrorism....

"The government tried to clarify the roles through an October 2005 document called the Maritime Operational Threat Response." It says the DHS and its agencies, including the Coast Guard, "take the lead 'for the interdiction of maritime threats in waters where D.H.S. normally operates,' American ports and coastal waters. The document says the role of the Justice Department and the F.B.I. is to search for clues to prevent maritime terrorism and, if there is an attack, to investigate and prosecute. But the new report says the 2005 document has 'not eliminated the potential for conflict and confusion in the event of a terrorist incident at a seaport.'"

O'Rourke, Ronald. Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations -- Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 1 Jun. 2006. [Available at: RS21125.pdf]

"The Coast Guard is the lead federal agency for maritime homeland security.... The Coast Guard's homeland security operations pose several potential issues for Congress, including adequacy of Coast Guard resources for performing both homeland security and non-homeland security missions, and Coast Guard coordination with other agencies involved in maritime homeland security."

Sloan, James F. [Assistant Commandant (CG-2), U.S. Coast Guard] "Coast Guard Expands Intelligence Efforts." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 131, no. 5 (May 2005): 98.

"In December 2001, President George Bush signed legislation that amended the National Security Act of 1947 and made the U.S. Coast Guard a full partner as the 14th member of the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). Since that date, the Coast Guard Intelligence Program has grown significantly."

Wirth, Kevin E. [LCDR/USCG] The Coast Guard Intelligence Program Enters the Intelligence Community: A Case Study of Congressional Influence on Intelligence Community Evolution. Center for Strategic Intelligence Research. Occasional Paper No. 16. Washington, DC: NDIC Press, 2007.

From "Foreword": "Prior to 2002, the Coast Guard contributed to and benefited from Intelligence Community analysis as a customer. However, increasing transnational threats such as drug smuggling, weapons proliferation, and illegal migration, some involving or supporting terrorist organizations, accentuated the need for and the benefit of Coast Guard membership within the Intelligence Community." The author "describes the story behind the short but significant amendment to the National Security Act of 1947 which resulted in the Coast Guard's formal entry into the Intelligence Community."

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