Military Attachés

General and Pre-World War I


Topics included here:

1. General

2. Pre-World War I


1. General

Breede, Walter J., Jr. "The Military Attaché: Master of Strange Trades." Marine Corps Gazette 67 (Jul. 1983): 70-74. [Petersen]

Sachse, William L. "Our Naval Attaché System: Its Origins and Developments to 1917." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 72 (May 1946): 661-672. [Calder]

Shields, Henry S. A Historical Survey of U.S. Naval Attachés in Russia, 1904-1941. Washington, DC: Defense Intelligence School, 1970.

Upshur, Giles C. [CAPT/USN (Ret.)] "The US Naval Attaché." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 9, no. 1 (Jan. 1993): 9-11.

Brief overview of the development of the Defense Attaché System. This is an extract of a study done at the National War College in 1969.

U.S. National Archives and Records Service. Registers of Communications Received From Military Attaches and Other Intelligence Officers (“Dispatch Lists”), 1889-1941. Washington, DC: NARS, 1983. [5 reels + guide]

Vagts, Alfred.

1. "Diplomacy, Military Intelligence, and Espionage." In Defense and Diplomacy, 61-77. New York: King's Crown Press, 1956. [Petersen]

2. The Military Attaché. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.

Pforzheimer: "An excellent treatment ... [which] discusses both the history of the service attaché and his functions, past and present."

2. Pre-World War I

Coletta, Paolo E. "French Ensor Chadwick: The First American Naval Attaché, 1882-1889." American Neptune 39 (Apr. 1979): 126-141. [Petersen]

Floyd, Dale E. "U.S. Army Officers in Europe, 1815-61." In Proceedings of the Citadel Conference on War and Diplomacy, 1977, 26-30. Charleston, SC: The Citadel, 1979.

Long, David F. Gold Braid and Foreign Relations: Diplomatic Activities of U.S. Naval Officers, 1798-1883. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988.

Bates, NIPQ, Spring 1996: This is an "elegant" book that suffers from "some slipshod editing." It is a "series of about 270 vignettes describing some 500 incidents where U.S. Naval officers were involved in the creation or implementation of foreign policy." There is "[n]o specific intelligence emphasis, although almost every one of the ventures described had an unspoken mission to gather intelligence."

Mott, T. Bentley. Twenty Years as Military Attaché. New York: Oxford University Press, 1937. In France, 1900-1905, and Russia, 1909-1913.

Prout, John F. [COL/USA (Ret.)]

1. "George Foulk, HUMINT Pioneer: The First US Naval Attaché to Korea." Studies in Intelligence 49, no. 1 (2005), 33-39.

Ensign George Foulk served as naval attaché to Korea 1884-1887. He also served as chargé from December 1884 for over a year. He "was only the third US naval attaché.... [H]e was directed to explore the Korean peninsula, to provide encyclopedic information on a country about which nothing was known, to advise the Korean court on naval and military matters, and to report on possible commercial opportunities." The author finds that Foulk accomplished those tasks in an exceptional manner.

2.. "The Origins of the Military Attaché Corps." American Intelligence Journal 21, nos. 1 & 2 (Spring 2002): 47-55.

This is a nicely detailed look at the trials and tribulations of the early years (through the 19th century) of the U.S. military and naval attaché system.

Shields, Henry S. A Historical Survey of U.S. Naval Attachés in Russia, 1904-1941. Washington, DC: Defense Intelligence School, 1970.

Twichell, Heath, Jr. Allen: The Biography of an Army Officer, 1859-1930. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1974. Attaché in Russia and Germany, 1889-1898.

Votaw, John F. United States Military Attachés, 1885-1919: The American Army Matures in the International Arena. PhD dissertation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University, 1991. UB260V67 Includes a list of more than 200 attachés at pp. 235-241.

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