Materials arranged chronologically.

DeYoung, Karen. "Pentagon to Investigate Intelligence Unit that Allegedly Used Contractors." Washington Post, 16 Mar. 2010, A4:

On 15 March 2010, "Pentagon spokesman Bryan Whitman declined to confirm or deny whether a criminal investigation had been opened into activities by Michael D. Furlong, a former Special Operations officer who now works as a senior civilian officer for the Joint Information Operations Warfare Center at Lackland Air Force Base, Tex.... The U.S. Strategic Command, the parent organization of the information operations center, confirmed that Furlong is a full-time civilian employee but did not respond to requests to clarify the nature of his job."

Karen DeYoung, "Defense Official Says Afghan Program Was Authorized," Washington Post, 19 Mar. 2010, A12, adds: In an interview with the San Antonio Express News on 18 March 2010, Furlong said "his now-suspended program ... was requested by Army Gen. David D. McKiernan, the former top U.S. commander in Afghanistan, and approved by the U.S. Central Command." He also "denied misusing any U.S. contract funds."

Nakashima, Ellen. "Dismantling of Saudi-CIA Web Site Illustrates Need for Clearer Cyberwar Policies." Washington Post, 19 Mar. 2010, A1. []

According to former senior officials, a "Saudi-CIA Web site was set up several years ago as a 'honey pot,' an online forum covertly monitored by intelligence agencies to identify attackers and gain information." Saudi intelligence operatives had used the site "to round up some extremists before they could strike." By early 2008, U.S. military officials, including Gen. Ray Odierno, U.S. military commander in Iraq, had grown "concerned that the site 'was being used to pass operational information' among extremists." The decision was made to designate the operation as "a traditional military activity," not as a covert operation, so there was no need to brief congressional committees.

The Pentagon's Joint Functional Component Command-Network Warfare at Fort Meade and its "[e]lite U.S. military computer specialists[,] ... mounted a cyberattack that dismantled the online forum." A former official said that "dismantling of the CIA-Saudi site inadvertently disrupted more than 300 servers in Saudi Arabia, Germany and Texas." According to another former U.S. official, "some Saudi officials had been informed in advance about the Pentagon's plan, [but] several key princes were 'absolutely furious' at the loss of an intelligence-gathering tool."

Whitlock, Craig. "Defense Secretary Orders Review of Military Information Programs." Washington Post, 24 Mar. 2010, A4. []

Pentagon spokesman Geoff Morrell said on 23 March 2010 that "Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates has ordered a review of the military's information operations programs in response to allegations that private contractors ran an unauthorized spy ring in Afghanistan.... The Defense Department's inspector general and other Pentagon officials have already launched investigations into [Michael D.] Furlong's activities. But Gates wanted a broader review, Morrell said." See also Walter Pincus, "Defense Investigates Information-Operations Contractors," Washington Post, 29 Mar. 2010, A17.

Mazzetti, Mark. "U.S. Is Still Using Private Spy Ring, Despite Doubts." New York Times, 15 May 2010. []

According to American officials and businessmen, "military officials have continued to rely on a secret network of private spies ... inside Afghanistan and Pakistan,... despite concerns among some in the military about the legality of the operation." A review of the program by the New York Times found that the operatives in the contractor network originally set up by Michael D. Furlong "were still providing information using the same intelligence gathering methods as before. The contractors were still being paid under a $22 million contract,... managed by Lockheed Martin and supervised by the Pentagon office in charge of special operations policy."

Mazzetti, Mark. "U.S. Is Said to Expand Secret Actions in Mideast." New York Times, 24 May 2010. []

According to defense officials and military documents, Gen. David H. Petraeus signed a secret directive -- the Joint Unconventional Warfare Task Force Execute Order -- on 30 September 2009 authorizing the sending of U.S. "Special Operations troops to both friendly and hostile nations in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Horn of Africa to gather intelligence and build ties with local forces." The "order is meant for small teams of American troops to fill intelligence gaps about terror organizations and other threats in the Middle East and beyond, especially emerging groups plotting attacks against the United States."

Long, Emily. "Defense Ends Performance-based Pay for Intelligence Employees." Government, 6 Aug. 2010. []

"In an Aug. 5 memorandum, Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence James Clapper ... wrote that except for National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency employees, the intelligence workforce will move from pay-for-performance to a compensation system similar to the General Schedule.... Clapper wrote that Defense still is committed to a 'performance-driven culture' and will be awarding bonuses, awards and quality step increases based on how well employees do their jobs.... Clapper said the process for moving to a GS-like system has yet to be determined, adding no employees will lose pay as a result of the change."

Dozier, Kimberly. "Defense Intelligence Community to Tighten Belt." Associated Press, 11 Aug. 2010. []

"The defense intelligence community is combing its budgets to figure out where to cut 10 percent of its contractors as part of Defense Secretary Robert Gates' drive to reduce costs in the Pentagon.... [A]s part of defense budget goals he announced this week,... Gates ordered a review to be completed by Nov. 1 of all Defense Department intelligence missions, organizations, relationships and contracts to eliminate needless duplication. Gates also directed an immediate 10 percent reduction in funding for contractors who provide management, analysis and engineering as well as a freeze on the number of senior executive positions in defense intelligence organizations."

Tilghman, Andrew. "Spec Ops Vet Vickers Tapped as DoD Intel Chief." Army Times, 4 Oct. 2010. []

"The White House has nominated Michael Vickers, a former Special Forces soldier and Central Intelligence Agency paramilitary operations officer, to be undersecretary of defense for intelligence. Since July 2007, Vickers has served as assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict."

Dozier, Kimberly. "Pentagon Says Intel Contractors Went Too Far." Associated Press, 29 Oct. 2010. []

"A high-level Defense Department inquiry [has] concluded that defense contractor Michael Furlong ... ran what amounted to an illegal spying ring of private military contractors" in Afghanistan. The report, "[d]rafted by Michael Decker, the Pentagon's assistant secretary for intelligence oversight," says that "Furlong's human intelligence collection program, known as 'Information Operations Capstone,' amounted to a 'violation of executive orders' and Defense Department policy.... There are two more Pentagon investigations under way into the matter," one by the Defense Department inspector general and another by the Air Force.

Coyne, Kevin M. [LTCOL/USAF] "Developing US European Command's Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Strategy for Fiscal Years 2010 through 2015." Air and Space Power Journal 24, no. 4 (Winter 2010): 81-90. []

"Since most ISR assets continue to support USCENTCOM, other theaters competing for remaining scarce ISR resources (such as USEUCOM) should develop requirements-based strategies to better integrate current and planned allied capabilities and thereby offset their collection shortfalls."

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