Materials arranged chronologically.

Tyson, Ann Scott. "Ability to Wage 'Long War' Is Key To Pentagon Plan; Conventional Tactics De-Emphasized." Washington Post, 4 Feb. 2006, A1. []

The Defense Department's latest Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) "concentrates on ... defeating terrorist networks; countering nuclear, biological and chemical weapons; dissuading major powers such as China, India and Russia from becoming adversaries; and creating a more robust homeland defense.

"Central to the first two goals is a substantial 15 percent increase in U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF), now with 52,000 personnel, including secret Delta Force operatives skilled in counterterrorism. The review calls for a one-third increase in Army Special Forces battalions...; an increase in Navy SEAL teams; and the creation of a new SOF squadron of unmanned aerial vehicles to 'locate and target enemy capabilities' in countries where access is difficult. In addition, civil affairs and psychological operations units will gain 3,500 personnel, a 33 percent increase, while the Marine Corps will establish a 2,600-strong Special Operations force for training foreign militaries, conducting reconnaissance and carrying out strikes."

Gertz, Bill. "Intelligence Intransigence." Washington Times, 5 Feb. 2006. []

Intelligence officials say that there "has been opposition to restructuring and reform from bureaucrats within the DNI, CIA and FBI."

Military "intelligence-gathering and counterintelligence have been frustrated by legal restrictions and conflicting missions.... [T]he Pentagon's Counterintelligence Field Activity [CIFA] ... still lacks the authority to take a direct role in the activities of the military counterintelligence units.... The DIA is focused more on process changes, which include improving information-sharing and analysis, and less on changing the structure. The DIA was singled out for criticism by the WMD commission for its handling of an Iraqi informant known as 'Curveball,' who provided bogus information to U.S. intelligence agencies that ended up reaching the highest levels of the government." DIA has improved its "system of checking the validity of sources, but continues to believe that collectors should provide as much information as possible to analysts and other intelligence officials."

Pincus, Walter. "Lawmakers Want More Data on Contracting Out Intelligence." Washington Post, 7 May 2006, A7. []

"Congress is taking its first steps to oversee the Defense Department's rapidly growing activities in the foreign and domestic intelligence fields, focusing also on the growing practice of contracting out intelligence analysis to former military personnel." HPSCI "has called for enhanced reporting requirements on the Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA), the Pentagon's newest and fastest-growing intelligence agency."

Schmitt, Eric. "Clash Foreseen Between C.I.A. and Pentagon." New York Times, 10 May 2006. []

"President Bush's selection of Gen. Michael V. Hayden to be the next director of the Central Intelligence Agency sets the stage for new wrangling with the Pentagon, which is rapidly expanding its own global spying and terrorist-tracking operations, both long considered C.I.A. roles.... [I]n interviews,... officials from intelligence agencies, the Defense Department and Congress provided new details of what they described as a strong effort by the Pentagon to assert a much broader role in the clandestine world of intelligence.... This activity has stirred criticism from some lawmakers who express concern that the Pentagon is creating a parallel intelligence-gathering network independent from the C.I.A. or other American authorities, and one that encroaches on the C.I.A.'s realm....

"A central figure in how this debate plays out is [Stephen A.] Cambone,... who as undersecretary of defense for intelligence oversees 130 full-time employees and more than 100 contractors. His office's responsibilities include domestic counterintelligence, long-range threat planning and budgeting for new technologies. Mr. Cambone emphasized that his office did not collect or analyze intelligence itself; it oversees those who do, assessing the quality of what organizations like the N.S.A. and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency collect and analyze."

Pincus,Walter. "Gates May Rein In Pentagon Activities: Nominee Has Opposed Defense Department's Dominance in Intelligence Efforts." Washington Post, 14 Nov. 2006, A12. []

According to "experts inside and outside the government and on Capitol Hill," Robert M. Gates' nomination to be defense secretary "has begun to ease concerns in the intelligence community about the rapid growth of Pentagon intelligence activities." The former DCI "has a long history of opposing expansive Pentagon intelligence activities. He has voiced unease about roles being taken over by Pentagon personnel."

Bowman, Steve, and James Crowhurst. Homeland Security: Evolving Roles and Missions for United States Northern Command. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Nov. 2006. Available at:

Among the issues raised: "As mobilizations continue and homeland security missions increase, more reserve component forces are serving in full time status. This creates near- and long-term resource issues as Congress considers future defense appropriations. Additionally, the heritage of 'citizensoldiers' could be lost as reserve components are used more as an operational reserve."

Mazzetti, Mark. "Military Role in U.S. Embassies Creates Strains, Report Says." New York Times, 20 Dec. 2006. []

A report by the Republican staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee has found that "[t]he expansion of the Pentagon's presence in American embassies is creating frictions and overlapping missions that could undermine efforts to combat Islamic radicalism.... As the Pentagon takes on new roles collecting intelligence, initiating information operations and conducting other 'self-assigned missions,' the report found that some embassies have effectively become command posts, with military personnel in those countries all but supplanting the role of ambassadors in conducting American foreign policy." The report, "Embassies as Command Posts in the Anti-Terror Campaign," dated 15 December 2006, is available at:

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