LATIN AMERICA

General

M - Z

McSherry, J. Patrice.

1. "Operation Condor: Clandestine Inter-American System." Social Justice 26, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 144-175.

This article traces "[a]nti-insurrection collusion among the intelligence services of the 'southern cone' countries of Argentina, Brazil and Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay." Swenson, IJI&C 16.1/127/fn25.

2. Predatory States: Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

From publisher: "Operation Condor was a military network created in the 1970s to eliminate political opponents of Latin American regimes. Its key members were the anticommunist dictatorships of Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil, later joined by Peru and Ecuador, with covert support from the U.S. government." The author draws "on a wealth of testimonies, declassified files, and Latin American primary sources." McSherry "shows how ... Operation Condor hunted down, seized, and executed political opponents across borders."

Musicant, Ivan. The Banana Wars: A History of U.S. Military Intervention in Latin America from the Spanish-American War to the Invasion of Grenada. New York: Macmillan, 1990.

Pastor, Robert A. Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and the Caribbean. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992. F1418P365

Rabe, Stephen G. The Most Dangerous Area in the World: John F. Kennedy Confronts Communist Revolution in Latin America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

For Robarge, I&NS 15.4, the author clarifies "how the ideological and political goals of John F. Kennedy drove the covert action operations and counterinsurgency activities of the Central Intelligence Agency and the US military in Latin America during the early 1960s.... Sometimes Rabe is too quick to cite less-than-credible CIA critics, such as Philip Agee, to make points against US policy, and he also stretches historical logic on occasion in linking the Kennedy administration to the noisome actions that America's Latin allies committed years later."

Rodriguez, Felix I., and John Weisman. Shadow Warrior: The CIA Hero of a Hundred Unknown Battles. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989. New York: Pocket Books, 1990. [pb]

Saxe-Fernandez, John. "From Counterinsurgency to Counterintelligence." In Latin America and the United States: Changing Political Realities, eds. Julio Cotler and Richard Fagan, 347-360. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1974.

Scott, Peter Dale, and Jonathan Marshall. Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. 1992. [pb]

According to Ramsey, MI 19.1, the "villainy theory" on which this book is based "collapses when one reviews the entire story that was known, through unclassified sources, when the book was published." This is a "churlish cannon shot in a political gutter war." See also, Ramsey's review in Parameters, Autumn 1995. Surveillant 2.4 says the authors "conclude that America's war on drugs possibly has been a sham.... Many of the findings are based on the 1989 Kerry Report and hearings."

Swenson, Russell G. "Intelligence Education in the Americas." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 108-130.

"Political centralization remains intact in South and Central American countries, to such a degree that, despite regional differences in intelligence professionalization through formal educational arrangements, a sustainable framework for generating impartial strategic intelligence judgments does not yet exist."

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Gen. ed., Edward C. Keefer. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976. Volume E-10. Documents on American Republics, 1969-1972. Eds., Douglas Kraft and James F. Siekmeier. Washington, DC: GPO, 2009. [Available at: http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76ve10]

From "Preface": "This volume includes documentation on U.S. relations with Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. Coverage of El Salvador and Honduras is limited to a chapter on the U.S. response to the 1969 'Soccer War.'... Chapters on Bolivia and Uruguay will be added once they have completed the declassification process.... [R]elations with Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and the colonies and overseas territories of European powers are not covered here. Documentation on relations with Chile between 1969 and September 1973 will be published in a separate volume."

Steven Aftergood, "State Dept Alters Stance on Uruguay History," Secrecy News, 4 Aug. 2009, notes that in its original form, this volume made no mention of Uruguay. The statement above is from the revised version.

Wiarda, Howard J. American Foreign Policy Toward Latin America in the 80s and 90s: Issues and Controversies from Reagan to Bush. New York: New York University Press, 1992. F1418W648

Weiner, Tim. "C.I.A. Taught Coercion to 5 Latin American Forces." New York Times, 29 Jan. 1997, A6 (N).

The CIA "taught techniques of mental torture and coercion to at least five Latin American security forces in the early 1980's,... according to documents and statements the agency made public" on 28 January 1997.

Wickham-Crowley, Timothy P. Guerrillas and Revolution in Latin America: A Comparative Study of Insurgents and Regimes Since 1956. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

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