ISRAEL

The Israeli Space Program and Satellite Reconnaissance

Included here:

1. General

2. Reportage

1. General

Zorn, E.L. "Israel's Quest for Satellite Intelligence." Studies in Intelligence 10 (Winter-Spring 2001): 33-38.

The Israelis' belief in the need for their own spy satellite capability was the "result of the failure of the United States to provide satellite intelligence to Israel just when it was required most," that is, in 1973 during the Yom Kippur War. After that time, the Israelis continued to perceive inconsistencies in U.S. policy in supplying satellite imagery and information. Consequently, "Israeli officials committed to the development of a space program and a reconnaissance satellite" in November 1982. Israel's first space launch took place in September 1988.

2. Reportage

Materials presented chronologically.

Gwertzman, Bernard. "Israel Asks U.S. for Gift of Jets, Citing Saudi Sale." New York Times, 4 Apr. 1981, 2.

Includes indication that the Israelis had asked the United States for direct access to a U.S reconnaissance satellite.

Roeder, Bill. "A U.S. Spy Satellite for Israel?" Newsweek, 7 Sep. 1981, 17.

Suggests that Israeli access to U.S. satellites might be a topic for conversation between President Reagan and Prime Minister Begin.

Fisher, Dan. "Israeli Space Program Sets Lofty Goals; Security, Industrial Development Are Prime Concerns." Los Angeles Times, 10 Jun. 1985, sec. 4, 1.

Hamilton, Marsha. "Israel Launches Test Satellite." Associated Press. 19 Sep. 1988.

This was the initial successful launch of an Ofek-1 satellite. See also, Glenn Frankel, "Israel Puts Its First Satellite into Orbit," Washington Post, 20 Sep. 1988, A16; John Kifner, "Israel Launches Space Program and a Satellite," New York Times, 20 Sep. 1988, A1; and Juan O. Tamayo, "Israel Launches Satellite with Military Potential," Miami Herald, 20 Sep. 1988, 14A.

Haberman, Clyde. "Israel, Unhappy with U.S., Orbits Its Own Spy Satellite." New York Times, 6 Apr. 1995, A7 (N).

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