ISRAEL

2010s

Materials arranged chronologically.

Melman, Yossi. "Who Is New Mossad Chief Tamir Pardo?" Haaretz, 29 Nov. 2010. [http://www.haaretz.com]

On 29 November 2010, Tamir Pardo was announced "as the new chief of Israel's Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, the Mossad." He has "served twice as deputy Mossad chief." His military service included "the elite commando unit Sayeret Matkal.... Pardo's appointment is an attempt to diffuse criticism from within the Mossad, which has seen its directors come from outside of the organization."

Harel, Amos. "For Israel's Elite Army Intel Unit, Errors of the Past Send a Spying Eye into the Future." Haaretz, 3 May 2012. [http://www.haaretz.com]

"Mideast unrest ... has forced the research department of the IDF General Staff's Intelligence Division to retool its thinking." The MI's research department is headed by Brig. Gen. Itay Baron.

United Press International. "Enter Unit 8200: Israel Arms for Cyberwar." 11 May 2011. [http://www.upi.com]

"Israel's Military Intelligence recently established a special division of its super-secret signal intelligence and code-breaking group, Unit 8200, to take responsibility for all cyberwar capabilities." In military publications, Unit 8200 "is known as the Central Collection Unit of the army's Intelligence Corps.... Unit 8200 is one of the largest units in the military, with several thousand personnel. It is commanded by a brigadier general whose identity is classified."

Nakashima, Ellen, and Joby Warrick. "Stuxnet Was Work of U.S. and Israeli Experts, Officials Say." Washington Post, 1 Jun. 2012. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to current and former U.S. officials, the Stuxnet computer virus "cyberattack against Iran's nuclear program was the work of U.S. and Israeli experts and proceeded under the secret orders of President Obama.... [T]he classified effort code-named Olympic Games ... was first developed during the George W. Bush administration and was geared toward damaging Iran's nuclear capability gradually while sowing confusion among Iranian scientists about the cause of mishaps at a nuclear plant....

"Olympic Games became a collaborative effort among NSA, the CIA and Israel, current and former officials said.... The CIA and Israelis oversaw the development of plans to gain physical access to the plant. Installing the worm in plant equipment not connected to the Internet depended on spies and unwitting accomplices ... who might connect an infected device to one of the systems, officials said."

See also David E. Sanger, "Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran," New York Times, 1 Jun. 2012. This article is adapted from Sanger's Confront and Conceal: Obama's Secret Wars and Surprising Use of American Power (New York: Crown, 2012).

Shpiro, Shlomo. "Israeli Intelligence and al-Qaeda." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 240-259.

"Al-Qaeda was unable to mount a large-scale attack ... against Israel," and "has so far failed in its efforts to inflict significant damage on Israel or adversely affect its relations with other countries."

Sharfman, Daphna, and Ephraim Kahana. "Combating Terrorism With Intelligence: The Normative Debate in Israel." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 25, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 546-570.

The authors "present an analysis of Israel's legal and practical policies concerning the collection of intelligence in its struggle against terrorism in the quarter century following the report of the Landau Commission [1987]."

Bar-Joseph, Uri. "The Politicization of Intelligence: A Comparative Study." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 26, no. 2 (Summer 2013): 347-369.

According to the author, "the politicization of intelligence is a universal problem, [but] sufficient evidence permits the argument that among Western-type democracies it mainly exists in the United States."

Magan, Clila, and Eytan Gilboa. "Communicating from Within the Shadows: The Israeli Security Agency and the Media." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 27, no. 3 (Fall 2014): 285-508.

"Beginning in the early 1990s, the ISA invested a great deal of effort into developing a communication response that was proportional to the challenges presented by critical events.This was manifested through media briefings, appointing a semi-formal spokesperson, issuing press releases, and creating a Website."

Beres, Louis René. "Israel's Strategic Doctrine: Updating Intelligence Community Responsibilities." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 28, no. 1 (Spring 2015): 89-104.

The author argues that Iran's nuclearization will "require Israel to 'disclose,' in carefully calculated increments," more about its previously hidden nuclear capability.

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