INTERWAR PERIOD

United States

N - Z

Parker, Frederick D. Pearl Harbor Revisited: United States Communications Intelligence, 1924-1941. Ft. George Gordon Meade, MD: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1994.

According to Sexton, this is a "[v]aluable history of the evolution of Army and Navy Comint agencies" in the interwar years. Kruh, Cryptologia 19.1, says that "[t]his excellent work" provides a "detailed examination and analysis of the U.S. Navy's communications intelligence (COMINT) efforts" in the interwar years. For Wilford, Northern Mariner 12.1/22, "Parker's work constitutes one of the most meticulous examinations" of intercepted JN-25 messages.

Rowan, Richard W.

1. Secret Agents against America. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1939. [Wilcox]

2. Spy and Counterspy: The Development of Modern Espionage. New York: Viking, 1928. [Petersen]

3. The Spy Menace: An Exposure of International Espionage. London: Butterworth, 1934. [Wilcox]

4. ed. Modern American Spies Tell Their Stories: Personal Narratives of Many Exploits in Secret Service. New York: McBride, 1934. [Petersen]

Rowlett, Frank B. The Story of Magic: Memoirs of an American Cryptologic Pioneer. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1998.

See Rowlett's obituary in Telegraph (London), 18 Jul. 1998.

According to Bates, NIPQ 15.1, these are the memoirs of the man who "was largely responsible for the ciphers used by the United States in the thirties and forties and for duplicating the Japaneses diplomatic cipher machine, PURPLE, through cryptanalysis." Rowlett's story begins in 1930 and ends before Pearl Harbor. The memoir has "no footnotes because this is a first hand account."

Beard, I&NS 15.4, notes that "[t]hanks to this memoir, we know quite a lot more about just how the tiny corps of Army Signals Intelligence Service (SIS) and Navy cryptanalysts solved 'Red,' 'Purple' and other Japanese codes." David Kahn provides a "useful Foreword and Epilogue." For Kruh, Cryptologia 23.2 , this "is one of only a few cryptologic works that merits a place in the personal library of anyone interested in codes and ciphers."

Russell, Charles Edward. Espionage and Counterespionage. Garden City, NY: Country Life Press, 1926.

Wilcox: "Dated but interesting collection of lectures to Army officers."

Smith, Truman. Air Intelligence Activities: Office of the Military Attache, American Embassy, Berlin, Germany -- August 1935-April 1939. New Haven, CT: Yale University Library Holdings, 1954-1956.

According to Constantinides, Smith was military attaché in Berlin for the years indicated. He prepared this report in 1953 at the request of Army intelligence. The focus is on the activities of Charles A. Lindbergh as an intelligence collector for the military attaché. The book provides "a valuable account of nonclandestine collection by attaché systems before the war." Chambers notes that this is a sanitized government report. See Robert Hessen, ed., Berlin Alert: The Memoirs and Reports of Truman Smith (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1984). See also Kenneth J. Campbell, "Truman Smith: American Military Attaché," Intelligencer 9, no. 3 (Oct. 1998): 16-17.

Spence, Richard B. "Senator William E. Borah: Target of Soviet and Anti-Soviet Intrigue, 1922-1929." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 134-155.

"So, was William Borah a paid tool of the Soviet regime? Given the character of the evidence and the many other factors involved, the appropriate answer would seem to be 'probably not.' Still, a scintilla of doubt must remain."

Sweeney, Walter C. Military Intelligence: A New Weapon in War. New York: Stokes, 1924. [Petersen]

Wala, Michael. "A Triangle of Deception: Intelligence and Germany's Military Relations with the United States and the Soviet Union, 1919-1939." Journal of Intelligence History 8, no. 2 (Winter 2008-2009). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/journal.html]

Wilhelm, Maria. The Man Who Watched the Rising Sun: The Story of Admiral Ellis M. Zacharias. New York: Watts, 1967.

See also, Ellis M. Zacharias, Secret Missions: The Story of an Intelligence Officer (New York: Putnam, 1946).

Yardley, Herbert O. The American Black Chamber. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1931. London: Faber & Faber, 1931. New York: Ballantine, 1981. [Reprint] Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1992. [Reprint, hb. & pb.] Mattituck, NY: Amereon, 1999. [Reprint]

Yardley, Herbert O. The Chinese Black Chamber: An Adventure in Espionage. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.

Petersen identifies The Chinese Black Chamber as the author's "manuscript on [his] 1938-40 service to Chiang Kai-shek, hidden for 40 years." For Sexton, this book "furnishes insight into the author's character and the little-known wartime Chinese cryptographic service."

Yardley, Herbert O. Yardleygrams. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs Merrill, 1932. [Petersen]

Zacharias, Ellis M. Secret Missions: The Story of an Intelligence Officer. New York: Putnam, 1946. New York: Paperback Library, 1961. [pb] Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003.

Clark comment: Zacharias was a 23-year-old ensign when the Navy sent him to Japan in 1920 to become one of the few U.S. officers trained in the Japanese language.

Pforzheimer notes that the "book includes discussion of pre-WWII espionage activities and of the U.S. Navy's psychological warfare campaign against Japan." To Kruh, Cryptologia 30.2 (Apr. 2006), this story by "a remarkable man ... will keep you turning the pages." Constantinides calls the book "an indispensable record of ONI for the period he was associated with it and for the cryptologic and CI history of the prewar effort against Japan."

See also Maria Wilhelm, The Man Who Watched the Rising Sun: The Story of Admiral Ellis M. Zacharias (New York: Watts, 1967).

Return to U.S. Interwar Table of Contents