THE INTERWAR PERIOD

General

Aubin, Chantal. "French Counterintelligence and British Secret Intelligence in the Netherlands, 1920-40." In Battleground Western Europe: Intelligence Operations in Germany and The Netherlands in the Twentieth Century, eds. Beatrice de Graaf, Ben de Jong, and Wies Platje, 17-47. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 2007.

Spence, Richard B. "The Strange Case of Sergius Riis." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 222-242.

This is an interesting if often speculative article about a man who, as the author concludes, "managed to keep himself employed -- and alive -- through some three decades of clandestine work, no mean achievement."

Thomas, Martin. "Bedouin Tribes and the Imperial Intelligence Services in Syria, Iraq and Transjordan in the 1920s." Journal of Contemporary History 38, no. 4 (2003): 539-561.

Wasserstein, Bernard. The Secret Lives of Trebitsch Lincoln. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.

From Maioli, Library Journal (via Amazon.com): "Con man, missionary, freelance spy, Buddhist abbot, international persona non grata, Lincoln was a modern-day Proteus. From his birth in turn-of-the-century Hungary to his final days in the Shanghai YMCA during World War II, he captures our interest." Lincoln is "rescued from obscurity in this engaging feat of historical detective work, which depicts him as a false messiah who shared attributes with the period's great dictators. As history, biography, or adventure, this is a fascinating book written with authority and wit."

Richard B. Spence, "The Mysteries of Trebitsch-Lincoln: Con-man, Spy, 'Counter-Initiate'?" New Dawn, 30 Sep. 2009. says that of the works dealing with Trebitsch-Lincoln "[b]y far the most thorough is Bernard Wasserstein's 1988 The Secret Lives of Trebitsch Lincoln. But even Wasserstein's diligent detective work cannot fill in all the blanks."

Spence comments that "[w]hatever else may be said about Ignatius Timothy Trebitsch-Lincoln, few can match his resume. He started life in Hungary in 1879 as plain Ignacz Trebitsch, the son of a prosperous orthodox Jewish family. He ended it sixty-four years later in Shanghai as the Abbot Chao Kung.... In between, using innumerable aliases, Trebitsch played the parts of actor, petty thief, convicted forger, Christian missionary, Anglican curate, Buddhist monk, member of Parliament, oil tycoon, fugitive, self-proclaimed genius, international spy, adviser to warlords and arch-conspirator. And those are just the ones we can be sure of."

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