Pre-World War I Generally


Allmand, Christopher. "Intelligence in the Hundred Years War." In Go Spy the Land: Military Intelligence in History, eds. Keith Neilson and B.J.C. McKercher, 31-47. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.

Bonilla, Diego Navarro. "'Secret Intelligences' in European Military, Political and Diplomatic Theory: An Essential Factor in the Defense of the Modern State (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries)." lligence and National Security 27, no. 2 (Apr. 2012): 283-301.

The author outlines "the role of secret intelligence in the direction of armies and the government during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries."

Dakin, Douglas. The Greek Struggle in Macedonia, 1897-1913. Salonika, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1966.

Constantinides: "Dakin gives particulars on the intelligence, assassination, and support networks set up by the Greek side to fight the Bulgarians and the Comitadjis for control of Macedonia.... The excellent Greek system for penetrating and bribing Turkish governmental and police authorities is pictured as part of the unified, well-planned effort."

Dedijer, Stevan. "Ragusa Intelligence and Security (1301-1806): A Model for the Twenty-First Century?." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 101-114.

"In order to adapt to its hostile world," the Ragusa Republic (modern-day Dubrovnik) "had to develop an unparalleled I&S [intelligence and security] system." The city-state "lived free for five centuries, using the well-organized intelligence and security connections of its ruling elite."

Frank, Tibor. From Habsburg Agent to Victorian Scholar: G.G. Zerffi, 1820-1892. Highland Lakes, NJ: Atlantic Research and Publications, 2000.

Pastor, I&NS 17.3, notes that the author's "meticulously researched work" shows that "Zerffi worked for the secret service of Austrian Interior Minister Alexander von Bach for 15 years." Despite the quality of Frank's efforts, the work fails to provide sufficient historical background and, therefore, "is best appreciated by the specialist."

Harari, Yuval Noah. Special Operations in the Age of Chivalry, 1100-1550. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2007.

Rogers, I&NS 26.4 (Aug. 2011), sees this as an "unassuming but excellent" book that demonstrates how "unconventional military missions ... played a regular and important role in the conduct of war" during the Age of Chivalry. The author's "thorough research is matched by sound scholarly judgement, and enhanced by an admirable flair for storytelling."

Harris, John A. "Industrial Espionage in the Eighteenth Century." Industrial Archaeology 7 (1985): 127-138. [Calder]

Kofos, Evangelos. Greece and the Eastern Crisis, 1875-1878. Salonika, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1975.

According to Constantinides, the intelligence connection here is the discussion of Greek covert activities in Ottoman territories with a Greek population. This is a "scholarly, balanced work."

Leary, Thomas (Penn). "Cryptography in the 15th and 16th Century." Cryptologia 20, no. 3 (Jul. 1996): 223-242.

Rubin, Michael. "The Telegraph, Espionage, and Cryptology in Nineteenth Century Iran." Cryptologia 25, no. 1 (Jan. 2001): 18-36.

"The telegraph transformed intelligence gathering in Iran. It was a potent tool in the hands of any party. Both the Shah and British strategists benefited from access to information, but at the same time vulnerability of messages transmitted across the wires increased."

Storrs, Christopher. "Intelligence and the Formulation of Policy and Strategy in Early Modern Europe: The Spanish Monarchy in the Reign of Charles II (1665-1700)." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 4 (Aug. 2006): 493-519.

From abstract: "There was nothing particularly distinctive about Spain's intelligence machinery. Nor was it always effective.... [However,] intelligence contributed to the remarkable resilience of the Spanish Monarchy in an age of supposed Spanish decline."

Thompson, James Westfall, and Saul K. Padover. Secret Diplomacy; Espionage and Cryptography, 1500-1815. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1963.

According to Constantinides, the book contains "numerous examples of how secret diplomacy, espionage, covert action, and covert political action were conducted and became standard practices in Europe in the eighteenth century and were carried out until the fall of Napoleon." However, the subtitle exaggerates with regard to its cryptographic contents; the "authors come nowhere near treating the three hundred years of cryptography." Pforzheimer calls this work an "engrossing history of 300 years of diplomatic duplicity in Europe and the operations of early intelligence services."

Toye, P.L., ed. Political and Military Intelligence Concerning Ottoman Turkey, 1750-1900. Neuchatel, Switzerland: Archive Editions, 1995.

Surveillant 4.2: "Primary (and very extensive) documents of the period."

Winchell, Sean P. "The CDX: The Council of Ten and Intelligence in the Lion Republic." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 335-355.

The Council of Ten (CDX) was established in Venice in 1310 in response to unrest targeted at the Doge. It would last until 1796, when Venice fell to Napoleon. "In its time, the CDX as an intelligence and counterintelligence service was unequaled."

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