GERMANY

Post-Cold War

1990s

Boyes, Roger. "Former Spy Chief Vanishes on Way to Inquiry." Times (London), 13 Jul. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

Holger Pfahl, retired former head of Germany's counter-espionage service and BND deputy director, "has disappeared on his way back" to Germany where he was slated "to testify in a politically explosive corruption investigation." Pfahl was to return to Munich from Taiwan for "questioning on charges that he received a kickback for the sale of German armoured vehicles to Saudi Arabia" while working for Daimler Chrysler after his retirement from government in 1992. "There is speculation that he has gone to ground in mainland China."

Boyes, Roger. "KGB Files to Reveal Fate of Lost Germans." Times (London), 4 Feb. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

"The fate of tens of thousands of Germans who disappeared inside the Soviet Union" after World War II may be solved by the handover this week to the German Red Cross of KGB files containing the "names, addresses, death dates and the site of their graves" of more than 10,000 Germans.

Cowell, Alan. "German Official Spied for Iraq in Gulf War." New York Times, 18 Nov. 1997, A8 (N).

A Foreign Ministry registry clerk was sentenced in May 1991 for providing "piles of secrets, including Western assessments of Iraq's missile strength," to Iraq. In the judgment of the German court, Jurgen Mohamed Gietler's "activities enabled Iraq's army to disguise some missile batteries so that it was able to fire missiles at Israel from sites that the United States and its allies believed they had destroyed."

Drozdiak, William. "Germans Show the Door to Three CIA Agents." Washington Post, 30 Sep. 1999, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"The United States has recalled three CIA agents at Germany's insistence in a fresh sign of tension between the two allies over the scale and purpose of U.S. intelligence-gathering in Germany. The recall of the three Americans, described as a married couple and their supervisor working under cover out of the U.S. consulate in Munich, came after they were accused of using false pretenses to recruit German citizens for unspecified economic espionage, German officials said." James Risen, "Germany Tries to Tell CIA to Stop Spy Operations There." New York Times, 1 Oct. 1999, adds that the couple appears to be "'nonofficial cover' officers."

Gedye, Robin. "Spy Chief Resigns over Secrets Sale." Telegraph (London), 1 Mar. 1996. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

BND head Konrad Porzner resigned on 30 April 1996 "in protest at Chancellor Kohl's refusal to sack two senior officers over investigations into the sale of information to British and other foreign intelligence services." See also Rick Atkinson, "German Spy Chief Quits in Dispute over Scandal: Case Involved Sale of Russian Secrets to U.S," Washington Post, 1 Mar. 1996, A20.

Gedye, Robin, and Christopher Lockwood. "Magazine Names Diplomat as MI6 Spy Who Paid for Russian Secrets." Telegraph (London), 30 Jan. 1996. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"Rosemary Sharpe,... until recently the first secretary at the British embassy in Berlin," was named by the German magazine Der Spiegel on 29 January 1996 "as the MI6 operative who bought information from German intelligence officials now under investigation on corruption-related charges.... It is understood that Miss Sharpe became involved in the 'left-overs' of a deal under which German intelligence set up a unit in 1991 to purchase sensitive Soviet military equipment from the departing army. Three of the members of the unit are alleged to have established a rogue operation in which they sold on material to American and British secret services. Everything from tanks to documents were spirited out of the barracks of the departing Soviet army in return for cash. It is stressed that none of the material related to nuclear weapons."

Gimson, Andrew. "Spy Book Backfires on Bonn 'Bunglers.'" Telegraph (London), 15 Jul. 1997. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

A book by Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung journalist Udo Ulfkotte, intended "to boost the standing of Germany's secret service[,] has instead shown up its spies as a bunch of incompetents." Ulfkotte "was given unprecedented access" to BND files. "The book will be all the harder for the German authorities to deal with because it is written in a friendly and innocent tone."

Johnson, Loch K., and Annette Freyberg. "Ambivalent Bedfellows: German-American Intelligence Relations, 1969-1991." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 165-179.

This article is very general in nature, but correctly projects that U.S.-German intelligence cooperation is likely to continue into the future despite occasional disagreement on political and economic issues.

Judah, Tim. "German Spies Accused of Arming Bosnian Muslims." Telegraph (London), 20 Apr. 1997. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

The BND "is in turmoil following revelations that spy chiefs ran covert and illegal operations sending arms to Bosnia's Muslims and Croatia during the war in the former Yugoslavia."

Sharma, Yojana. "Germany Liquidates Its Blundering Spy Service." Telegraph (London), 26 Jul. 1998. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

German Chancellor Kohl's office has announced that "Volker Foertsch, long-time head of counter-intelligence within the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) spy service, is to be transferred to another job and his entire 500-strong department dissolved." This shake-up comes "after a series of gaffes and scandals that have harmed relations with its intelligence partners in London and Washington."

Shpiro, Shlomo. Guarding the Guard: Parliamentary Control of the Intelligence Services in Germany and Britain. Sankt Augustin: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, 1997.

van der Meulen, Michael. "German Air Force Signal Intelligence 1956: A Museum of COMINT and SIGINT." Cryptologia 23, no. 3 (Jul. 1999): 240-256.

Abstract: "A survey of the development of the German Air Force Intelligence organization is given. Included is a description of the first public German Museum of Air Force Signal Intelligence located at the General von Seidel Kaserne (Garrison) at Trier-Euren."

Wegmann, Bodo. "German Intelligence Agencies: An Overview." Intelligence Watch Report Quarterly 2, no. 1 (1995): 13-15.

This is a nuts and bolts look at the German intelligence community -- BND, AfV, BSI, AfNBw, and MAD. It includes addresses and telephone numbers for the offices.

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