Hartmann, Frederick H., and Robert L. Wendzel. America's Foreign Policy in a Changing World. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
When it was new, this was one of the better general college texts on U.S. foreign policy. Hartmann is a highly respected respected, long-time professor at the Naval War College.
Herman, Michael. "Diplomacy and Intelligence." Diplomacy & Statecraft 9, no. 2 (Jul. 1998): 1-22.
Holt, Pat M. Secret Intelligence and Public Policy: A Dilemma of Democracy. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 1995. JK468.I6 H64
In its day, this was a potential text for a course in U.S. intelligence. Despite the polemic that the title may imply to some, this is a reasonably balanced overview of U.S. intelligence activities and structure, but with a focus on the dilemma that secrecy poses for democratic ideals.
King, Simon. "Intelligence Policy, After 50 Years, Moves to Centre Stage." Military Technology 23, no. 1 (31 Jan. 1995): 14-17.
Lowenthal, Mark M. "Tribal Tongues: Intelligence Consumers, Intelligence Producers." Washington Quarterly 15, no. 1 (Winter 1992): 157-168.
Looks at the producer-consumer relationship and the misunderstandings that can occur in both directions.
McCarthy, Shaun P. The Function of Intelligence in Crisis Management: Towards an Understanding of the Intelligence Producer-Consumer Dichotomy. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998.
Dolman, Choice, Feb. 1999, notes that the author focuses on showing that intelligence plays an interactive role in the policy process and that intelligence analysis and crisis decision making undertaken in isolation from each other produce negative consequences. Three case studies from the Reagan Administration's foreign policy initiatives in Lebanon are offered: the terrorist attacks in 1983 on the U.S. Embasy and the Marine barracks, the 1984 attack on the U.S. Embassy and the kidnapping of CIA Station Chief William Buckley, and the hijacking of TWA Flight 847 in 1985.
McCormick, James M. American Foreign Policy and Process. 2d ed. Itasca, IL: Peacock Publishers, 1992.
College text book.
New York Times. "C.I.A. Isn't Lone Wolf of Foreign Policy." 17 Feb. 1993, A18.
Rast, Vicki J. Interagency Fratricide: Policy Failures in the Persian Gulf and Bosnia. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 2004.
The author argues that "the gap between diplomats and warfighters dominates an interagency process likely to produce a policy that brings about war termination in the form of ceasefire. However, it almost inevitably fails to achieve conflict termination in the form of sustainable peace. This outcome results largely from interagency conflict that emanates from five key factors: 1. defects in leadership, 2. the absence of strategic vision, 3. dissimilar organization cultures, 4. disparate worldviews, and 5. the absence of an integrated interagency planning mechanism. These factors impede the effective development of crisis analysis, end-state vision, termination criteria, and termination strategy." (xix-xx) (emphasis in original)
Sarantakes, Air & Space Power Journal 20.4 (Winter 2006), comments that the first half of the book "is loaded with long, dull explanations on topics such as rational-choice theory and conflict-termination models. This material clearly needs to be present, but a reader pressed for time can safely skip it. The study becomes much more informative when Rast analyzes her two case studies, using source material in an effective and interesting fashion to support her claims." The author "has produced an informative and useful study for both the academic intellectual and the practitioner."
Ripley, Randall B., and James M. Lindsay, eds. Congress Resurgent: Foreign and Defense Policy on Capitol Hill. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1993. JK1081C658
Shuman, Michael H., and Hal Harvey. Security Without War: A Post-Cold War Foreign Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.
According to Fukuyama, FA 73.3 (May-Jun. 1994), Shuman and Harvey espouse a "clear-cut, if somewhat predictable, progressive foreign policy agenda.... Many of the agenda items here ... have already been overtaken by events."
Snow, Donald M., and D. Eugene Brown. Puzzle Palaces and Foggy Bottom: U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy-Making in the 1990s. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
Sobel, Richard, ed. Public Opinion in U.S. Foreign Policy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1993. E1838N5P83
Spanier, John. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. 12th ed., revised. Washington, DC: CQ, 1992.
As attested by its numerous editions, Spanier is a widely used college text.
Stempel, John D. "Error, Folly, and Policy Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 267-281.
Stempel defines folly as "the persistence of error to produce a result, usually adverse, which fails to accomplish the desired goals and eventually leads to disaster for those persisting in it." His examples include Pearl Harbor, the Battle of the Bulge, the Iranian Revolution, the Gulf War, the American Revolution, American involvement in Vietnam, and contemporary U.S. relations with the Middle East."
Wittkopf, Eugene R., and Christopher M. Jones. The Future of American Foreign Policy. 3d ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1998.
College text book.
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