GENERAL POST-WORLD WAR II

Intelligence & Policy

1980s

Armstrong, Anne. "Bridging the Gap: Intelligence and Policy." Washington Quarterly 12, no. 1 (1989): 23-34.

Barrett, Michael J. "Honorable Espionage." Journal of Defense and Diplomacy 2, no. 2 (1984): 13-21, 25, 63; 2, no. 3 (1984): 12-17, 62; and 2, no. 4 (1984): 17-21.

Benson, Sumner. "The Historian as Foreign Policy Analyst." The Public Historian 3, no. 1 (1981): 15-25.

Petersen: "Staff member, CIA Office of Political Analysis."

Betts, Richard K. "American Strategic Intelligence: Politics, Priorities, and Direction." In Intelligence Policy and National Security, eds. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr., Uri Ra'anan, and Warren Milberg, 245-267. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1981. [Petersen]

Betts, Richard K.

1. "Intelligence for Policymaking." Washington Quarterly 3, no. 3 (Summer 1980): 118-129.

2. "Policymakers and Intelligence Analysts: Love, Hate or Indifference?" Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 1 (Jan. 1988): 184-189.

"One way to capsulize the problem is that there are contradictions between the dynamics of the analytical process and the decision process, between professional norms and political utility, or between the qualities required for accuracy and those required for influence."

Bozeman, Adda B. "Covert Action and Foreign Policy." In Intelligence Requirements for the 1980s: Covert Action, ed. Roy S. Godson, 15-78. Washington, DC: National Strategy Information Center, 1981.

Brown, George E., Jr. "Politics and Secrecy: Easing the Tension." American Intelligence Journal 9, no. 1 (1988): 30-31.

Former HPSCI member.

Chomeau, John B. "Covert Action's Proper Role in U.S. Policy." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, no. 3 (Fall 1988): 407-413.

Codevilla, Angelo. "Covert Action and Foreign Policy." In Intelligence Requirements for the 1980s: Covert Action, ed. Roy Godson, 79-104. Washington, DC: National Strategy Information Center, 1981.

Crabb, Cecil V., Jr., and Kevin V. Mulcahy. Presidents and Foreign Policy Making: FDR to Reagan. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 1986.

Grose, FA 66 (Summer 1987), sees this as "a very competent synthesis of the bulk of published commentary on one of the most heavily studied subjects in American politics, a fine introduction for the layman and reference for experienced scholars and practitioners."

Crabb, Cecil V., Jr., and Pat M. Holt. Invitation to Struggle: Congress, the President and Foreign Policy. 2d ed. Washington, DC: CQ, 1984. 4th ed. 1992.

See especially Chapter 6 with regard to Congress and congressional oversight.

Gardiner, L. Keith. "Dealing with Intelligence-Policy Disconnects." Studies in Intelligence 33, no. 2 (Summer 1989): 1-9. In Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992, ed. H. Bradford Westerfield, 344-356. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995. Also published as, "Squaring the Circle: Dealing with Intelligence-Policy Breakdowns." Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 1 (Jan. 1991): 141-153.

This article really should be titled, "Dealing with Intelligence Analyst-Policymaker Disconnects." The differences in the personality types of policymakers and analysts are certainly not "scientifically" proven, but they still appear to be quite real. If that is true, then, divergencies between the goal-needs of each group can be shown. The author offers some thoughts on bridging the gap.

Gates, Robert M. "The CIA and American Foreign Policy." Foreign Affairs 66, no. 2 (Winter 1987-1988): 215-30.

This article describes broadly the role of intelligence analysis in the foreign policy process. Gates also addresses some of the issues with regard to "politicized" intelligence.

Godson, Roy. "Special Supplement: U.S. Intelligence Policy." In American Defense Annual, 1986-1987, ed. Joseph Kruzel. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986.

Harkabi, Yehoshafat. "The Intelligence-Policymaker Tangle." Jerusalem Quarterly 30 (Winter 1984): 125-131.

Heymann, Hans. "Intelligence/Policy Relationships." In Intelligence: Policy and Process, eds. Alfred C. Maurer, Marion D. Turnstall, and James M. Keagle, 57-66. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.

Hulnick, Arthur S.

1. "Determining U.S. Intelligence Policy." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 3, no. 2 (Summer 1989): 211-224.

2. "The Intelligence Producer-Policy Consumer Linkage: A Theoretical Approach." Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 2 (May 1986): 212-233.

The author points out that the intelligence producer-policy consumer relationship is not one of a single linkage but, rather, consists of "many intersections between the two systems." He also lays down some "rules" that policy-support intelligence must follow if it expects to have an impact on the policy process.

Johnson, Loch K. "Covert Action and Accountability: Decision-Making for America's Secret Foreign Policy." International Studies Quarterly 33 (Mar. 1989): 81-109.

Kalugin, Oleg. "Intelligence and Foreign Policy." International Affairs, Jun. 1989: 56-66.

Odom, William E. On Internal War: American and Soviet Approaches to Third World Clients and Insurgents. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992.

Treverton, FA 71(Fall 1992), says that "[t]he end of the Cold War ... makes Odom's intriguing analysis of primarily historical interest.... Reviewing cases in Latin America and Asia, his critique of American policy is biting: it has amounted to 'colonialism by ventriloquy.'"

Terchek, Ronald J. "Strategic Intelligence and the Formulation of Public Policy." In Interaction, Foreign Policy and Public Policy, ed. Frank B. Feigert, 70-93. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1983. [Marlatt]

U.S. Congress. House. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Intelligence Support to Arms Control. Report together with Dissenting Views. House Rept. No. 100-450. 100th Cong., 1st sess., 1987. Committee print.

Lowenthal notes that the "two sets of views expressed in the report ... give a good feel for how larger political views can affect the perception of issues and the role played by intelligence."

Vanderbrook, Michael. "UNCTAD V: Intelligence Support at a Major International Economic Conference." Studies in Intelligence 24, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 47-56. In Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992, ed. H. Bradford Westerfield, 366-376. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.

The focus is on intelligence support by an on-site team to the U.S. delegation at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, fifth session, held in Manila in May-June 1979. The redactions from this article blur the role that Humint collection played in the support effort.

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