GENERAL POST-WORLD WAR II

Medical Intelligence

K - Z

K., Damien. "Medical Intelligence Relies on Teamwork." Pathfinder (Mar.-Apr. 2010). [https://www1.nga.mil/Newsroom/Pathfinder/mar_apr_10/Pages/Medical.aspx#]

This article in the unclassified NGA house organ discusses the work of the NGA Support Team (NST) with the DIA's National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI). The author is chief of the NST at the NCMI.

Kaufman, Denis C. Medical Intelligence: A Theater Engagement Tool. Report no. A360983. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Army War College, 21 Feb. 2001.

Abstract: "Of all the intelligence challenges in the post-cold war world, medical issues are emerging as one of the most important. Increasingly our policymakers recognize that disease, environmental pollution, and health systems' failures threaten peace, stability, and economic progress throughout the developing world, shaping environments on terms other than ours and, at times, necessitating U.S. humanitarian and peacekeeping involvement. Medical intelligence is one tool that helps national policy makers, theater commanders and operational planners employ the medical instrument to best effect. To be properly employed, however, medical intelligence must be viewed as an intelligence function more than a medical function. Further, medical intelligence assets need to be distributed through the spectrum of intelligence support -- strategic, operational, and tactical."

Laqueur, Walter. "The Question of Judgment: Intelligence and Medicine." Journal of Contemporary History 18 (Oct. 1983): 533-548.

Marrin, Stephen, and Jonathan D. Clemente. "Improving Intelligence Analysis by Looking to the Medical Profession." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 4 (Winter 2005-2006): 707-729.

This is an interesting, even intriguing, article by a former CIA analyst and a physician. They argue that while "[s]ome limitations to the analogy are inevitable due to intrinsic differences between the fields,... the study of medicine could provide intelligence practitioners with a valuable source of insight into various reforms with the potential to improve the craft of intelligence."

Marrin, Stephen, and Jonathan D. Clemente. "Modeling an Intelligence Analysis Profession on Medicine." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007): 642-665.

"[I]ntelligence analysis has historically been practiced more as a craft reliant on the intrinsic skill and expertise of the individual analysts than as a highly developed profession with structured personnel practices to select and develop desired characteristics, skills, and behaviors.... Any occupation that lacks performance standards or other formal personnel practices will have difficulties improving both its practices and management.... Modeling the intelligence analysis professionalization process on an existing profession such as medicine would provide a more efficient, effective, and uniform push toward its improvement."

James B. Ellsworth, "Network-Centric Professional Development: Intelligence Associations in the Global Century," American Intelligence Journal 24 (2006): 34-40, comments that while the authors' "overall message is one the broader intelligence profession critically needs to hear -- and their framework for a constructive role for the intelligence association in safeguarding and evolving the profession is quite possibly groundbreaking -- there are several key differences between the 'professional terrain' confronted by pre-AMA medicine and that facing the IC today. Notable among these is the fact that an array of intelligence associations already exists, many active in at least some of the roles in the Marrin/Clemente framework."

Maxfield, Miles, Robert Proper, and Sharol Case. "Remote Medical Diagnosis." Studies in Intelligence 23, no. 1 (Spring 1979): 9-14. [http://www.fas.org/irp/cia/product/remote.pdf]

"Remote medical diagnosis is defined as the identification of the illnesses affecting a person without the benefit of a formal medical examination." In the broader sense, it "means the identification of the illnesses afflicting a person by a physician who has not himself fully examined the patient." The authors provide summaries of CIA medical diagnoses of French President Georges Pompidou, Algerian President Houari Boumediene, Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, and Israeli Prime Minister Menahem Begin.

McDermott, Rose. "The Use and Abuse of Medical Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 4 (Aug. 2007): 491-520.

The author argues that "timely and reliable medical information on foreign leaders ... can serve ... to provide proper warning in cases of incipient leadeship failure, transition or succession." She outlines four instances -- the Shah of Iran, Ferdinand Marcos, Tancredo Neves, and Boris Yeltsin -- "when the medical condition of a particular foreign leader exerted a decisive influence on policy outcomes of great importance" to the U.S. government.

Post, Jerrold M., ed. Psychological Assessments of Political Leaders. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2003.

Schudel, Matt. "Doctor Looked After the Sick, And Looked Around for the CIA." Washington Post, 31 Aug. 2008, C7. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

The focus here is Dr. Alan S. Cameron, his life, and his work at the CIA's Center for Analysis of Personality and Political Behavior in preparing "psychobiographies." Cameron died on 29 June 2008 at 90 years of age.

Schumeyer, Gerard [COL/USA]. "Medical Intelligence ... Making a Difference." American Intelligence Journal 17, no. 1/2 (1996): 11-15.

Schumeyer is Director, Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC), which functions as a "field production activity within DIA's Directorate for Intelligence Production."

U.S. Department of the Army. Medical Intelligence in a Theater of Operations. FM 8-10-8. 7 Jul. 1989.

U.S. Department of Defense. "Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC)." Department of Defense Directive, Number 6429.1, 9 Oct. 2004. [Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/d6420_1.pdf]

The Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC) is "the focal point in the Department of Defense for compiling all-source intelligence and producing finished intelligence on foreign military forces, infectious disease and environmental health risks, and scientific and technical developments in biotechnology and biomedical subjects of military importance."

Windrem, Robert (prod.). "How the CIA Diagnoses World Leaders from Afar." MSNBC News, 3 Aug. 2006. [http://www.msnbc.msn.com]

The Medical and Psychiatric Analysis Center (MPAC) is the CIA unit that "gaug[es] the health of world leaders.... 'At most, there are seven who do this full time,' says Dr. Jonathan Clemente, a Charlotte, N.C., physician who has tracked the group and is writing a history of the center entitled, 'Cloak and Doctor.'" Castro's "most recent medical issue was just one of several recent events surrounding his health that has intrigued MPAC analysts," Clemente notes.

Wolowicz, George S., "Medical Intelligence: A Case Study of Azerbaijan." Military Intelligence, Jan.-Mar. 1996.

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