GENERAL POST-WORLD WAR II

Information Warfare

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McConnell, J.M. [VADM/USN (Ret.)], and Edward J. Giorgio. "Building Information Security Layer by Layer." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 124, no. 12 (Dec. 1998): 44-47.

"[I]nformation security is a difficult problem, and the Navy will not rely on any single mechanism to provide it. To compromise our security, an adversary must defeat the security mechanisms layer-by-layer. With proper defense in depth, the risk is minimized that a single flaw will leave an information system vulnerable."

McCullagh, Declan. "A'Hacking the Military Will Go." Wired News, 5 Jan. 2000. [http://www.wired.com]

The U.S. Space Command "took over the job of protecting Defense Department computers from hacker attacks" in October 1999. Gen. Richard Myers has "told reporters that Pentagon planners are currently devising general hacker-war procedures, which must be approved by the Defense Secretary and should be complete by October." Bill Gertz, "U.S. Set to Take Warfare On-Line," Washington Times, 6 Jan. 2000, 3, adds that Myers' announcement on 5 January 2000 "was the first time the Pentagon publicly acknowledged its plans to conduct offensive information warfare operations. Previously, only defenses against such attacks were discussed."

McNeal, Antoine C. [1LT/USAF] "Information Assurance: Structure from the Fog, A Dynamic Information Defense Solution in a Dynamic World." Chronicles Online Journal (6 Dec. 2004). [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/archives.html -- no longer available, 7/25/11]

Military Intelligence. "Information Operations." 23, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1997): Entire edition.

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Minihan, Kenneth A. [LGEN/USAF, DIRNSA]. "Intelligence and Information Systems Security: Partners in Defensive Information Warfare." Defense Intelligence Journal 5, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 13-23.

Minihan, Kenneth A. [LGEN/USAF, DIRNSA]. "National Security Implications of the Information Age." National Security Law Report 19, no. 1 (Winter 1997): 1, 4-10.

Molander, Roger C., Andrew S. Riddile, and Peter A. Wilson. Strategic Information Warfare: A New Face of War. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1996.

Tuttle, Proceedings 123.1 (Jan. 1997), credits the authors with elevating "information warfare strategic thought to a loftier plateau." For Cohen, FA 75.4 (Jul.-Aug. 1996), "this monograph offers one of the most interesting and revealing ways of thinking" about information warfare, "at least in an unclassified venue. A short but comprehensive discussion of the central issues in information warfare,... is followed by an ingenious 'day after' exercise that illustrates and amplifies these problems."

Myers, Russell E. "Challenges to the Defense Intelligence Information System Professional." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (Autumn/Winter 1994): 42-51.

Nagy, Dennis M. "A Military Intelligence Knowledge Base and Knowledge Management: Cultural Factors." Defense Intelligence Journal 9, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 39-56.

The author discusses structures, attitudes, and processes. He concludes that someone within the Department of Defense should be given the responsibility for achieving "dominant battlespace knowledge" for the U.S. forces.

Nakashima, Ellen. "Dismantling of Saudi-CIA Web Site Illustrates Need for Clearer Cyberwar Policies." Washington Post, 19 Mar. 2010, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to former senior officials, a "Saudi-CIA Web site was set up several years ago as a 'honey pot,' an online forum covertly monitored by intelligence agencies to identify attackers and gain information." Saudi intelligence operatives had used the site "to round up some extremists before they could strike." By early 2008, U.S. military officials, including Gen. Ray Odierno, U.S. military commander in Iraq, had grown "concerned that the site 'was being used to pass operational information' among extremists." The decision was made to designate the operation as "a traditional military activity," not as a covert operation, so there was no need to brief congressional committees.

The Pentagon's Joint Functional Component Command-Network Warfare at Fort Meade and its "[e]lite U.S. military computer specialists[,] ... mounted a cyberattack that dismantled the online forum." A former official said that "dismantling of the CIA-Saudi site inadvertently disrupted more than 300 servers in Saudi Arabia, Germany and Texas." According to another former U.S. official, "some Saudi officials had been informed in advance about the Pentagon's plan, [but] several key princes were 'absolutely furious' at the loss of an intelligence-gathering tool."

Nesbit, Robert F. "Catching Up With Pomfret, Vermont: An Examination of Intelligence Dissemination Architectures." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (Autumn-Winter 1994): 30-36.

The author argues that while hierarchical arrangements may work for command and control of forces, they make less sense for information tasking and dissemination architectures. The author looks at "push" and "pull" information distribution architectures, and concludes that each works better or worse than the other depending on the situation. "Request and delivery of information through the multilayered C3 system needs to be replaced in the large by broadcast [push] systems and direct data base [pull] arrangements."

Nicander, Lars. "Information Terrorism: When and by Whom?" Defense Intelligence Journal 16, no. 2 (2007): 139-153.

"[I]t is not inevitable that information terrorism ... will occur; however, it does seem like the natural progression for qualified non-state actors."

Nolte, William M. "'Information Control Is Dead. What's Next? The Knowledge Management Challenge for the Intelligence Community in the 21st Century." Defense Intelligence Journal 9, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 5-13.

"In the 21st century, if American intelligence is to be fully successful, analysts must work for their clients, aspiring to become their information brokers of choice."

O'Brien, Kevin A.  "Information Operations and Counterterrorism."  Jane's Intelligence Review 14 (Sep. 2002): 50-53.

O'Connell, Ed, and Cheryl Benard. "A New IO Strategy: Prevention and Disengagement." Strategic Insights 5, no. 5 (May 2006). [http://www.nps.edu]

"[W]e are currently letting the terrorists and insurgents pick the time and place of their information operations in today's Iraq. We appear to be fighting the enemy's fight, and only addressing the symptoms and not the causes of the larger battle by cleverly copying enemy fliers, or mirroring their themes in our psychological operations efforts."

Petersen, John L. "Info War: The Next Generation." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 123.1 (Jan. 1997), 60-62.

The author sees technology, particularly information technology, as one of the "major drivers and definers" of the coming era. "The early indicators of advanced first-generation information warfare already are emerging."

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