Information Warfare

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Abel, David, and Jim Newman.  "Information Warfare No Longer Just Defense."  Defense Week, 19 Jul. 1999, 8-9.

Adams, James. The Next World War: Computers Are the Weapons and the Front Line Is Everywhere. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Airman. Editors. "Information Superiority." Jan. 1999, 10-11.

"Future success, whether in humanitarian or combat operations, will depend as much on our capability to use and protect vital information as airlift or firepower."

Alberts, David S. Defensive Information Warfare. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1996.

Aldrich, Richard W.  "The International Legal Implications of Information Warfare."  Airpower Journal 10 (Fall 1996): 99-110.

Alexander, Yonah, and Michael S. Swetnam, eds. Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare: Threats and Responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2001.

Armistead, Edwin L., ed. [LCDR/USN] Information Operations: Warfare and the Hard Reality of Soft Power. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 2004.

DKR, AFIO WIN 19-04 (7 Jun. 2004), says that the author's work "fills an important gap in IO literature by analyzing the military, technological, and psychological aspects of information operations and as such serves as a textbook for military IO professionals. The general reader, too, has much to learn from this work about how IO has affected foreign policy, military operations, and government organization in recent years."

Arquilla, John, David Ronfeldt, and Michele Zanini.  "Information-Age Terrorism."  Current History 99 (Apr. 2000): 179-185.

Ayers, Robert.  "The New Threat: Information Warfare."  RUSI Journal, Oct. 1999, 23-27.

Baggett, Charlie. "Intelligence and Information Systems Security: Partners in the Information Age." NMIA Newsletter 11, no. 1 (1996): 9-12.

Remarks by the Director of Information, National Computers Systems Security, NSA/ISSO, at Defense Intelligence Status conference, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, DC, on 8 December 1995. "At their current stage of development, our Defense and National Information Infrastructures offer minimal defense against unauthorized access and use.... Last year, more than 260 unclassified DoD computer systems were known to have been penetrated by outsiders.... As information systems security and defensive information warfare move from a passive to a more active posture, intelligence will become increasingly critical to their success."

Barnett, Roger W.  "Information Operations, Deterrence, and the Use of Force."  Naval War College Review 51 (Spring 1998): 7-19.

Bass, Carla D. "Building Castles on Sand: Understanding the Tide of Information Operations." Airpower Journal 13 (Summer 1999): 27-45.

Berkowitz, Bruce D.

1. "Information Technology and Intelligence Reform." Orbis 41, no. 1 (Winter 1997): 107-118.

2. "The Information War." Hoover Digest 2003, no. 2 (30 Apr. 2003). []

"September 11 suggests that, unless we develop new ideas about how intelligence organizations are supposed to work, we will likely see additional intelligence failures. Indeed, abandoning many traditional ideas will be as important as formulating and adopting new ones." During the Cold War, most of the questions for intelligence "were evolutionary"; therefore, "the intelligence community could change incrementally, too. Most new threats, on the other hand, are much more dynamic."

3.  "Information Warfare: Time To Prepare."  Issues in Science & Technology 17 (Winter 2000-2001): 37-44.

4.  "War Logs On: Girding America for Computer Combat."  Foreign Affairs 79, no. 3 (May-Jun. 2000): 8-12. 

Betz, David J. "The More You Know, the Less You Understand: The Problem with Information Warfare." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 3 (2006): 505 – 533.

From abstract: "[T]he experience of recent campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq suggests that both IW [Information Warfare] and NCW [Network-Centric Warfare] are extremely tricky to implement in practice. Moreover, 'information' is a double-edged sword which benefits, strengthens, and enhances the operational effectiveness of non-conventional forces as much as or more than it does conventional forces."

Blank, Stephen.  "Can Information Warfare Be Deterred?"  Defense Analysis 17 (Aug. 2001): 121-138.

Boldrick, Michael R.  "Information Warfare: The Next Major Change in Military Strategies and Operational Planning."  Soldier-Scholar 3 (Fall 1996): 11-19.

Bosch, J. M. J. "Information Operations -- Challenge or Frustration?"  Military Technology, May 2000, 86-89.

Bosworth, Bruce. Codes, Ciphers, and Computers: An Introduction to Information Security. New York: Haywood, 1982.

Wilcox: "Basic manual on code and computer security."

Bowers, Stephen R.  "Information Warfare: The Computer Revolution Is Altering How Future Wars Will Be Conducted."  Armed Forces Journal International 136 (August 1998): 38-39.

Brewin, Bob.

1. "Army Establishes Infowar 'DMZ.'" Federal Computer Week, 12 Jan. 2000. []

The Army's Network Security Improvement Program (NSIP) is planning "to establish network security demilitarized zones (DMZs) at all its bases worldwide as part of a plan to beef up its cyberdefenses against network intrusions and attacks.... [A]ll Army bases and posts will have to physically separate public servers from those providing access to private Army intranets."

2. "DOD Recognizes Info Warfare as Key Battlefield." Federal Computer Week, 2 Dec. 1998. []

In October, "the military services approved ... a new Information Operations policy formally institutionalizing information warfare as a new operational 'battlespace.' The Joint Chiefs of Staff ... formally codified Information Operations doctrine with ... release of a guidance document called Joint Publication 3-13... The new doctrine, which covers defensive and offensive information operations, raises information warfare to the same importance as the three traditional battlegrounds -- air, land and sea -- and treats cyberspace as something akin to a physical space that has 'become a critical environment'.... The individual services already had taken steps to formalize their information operations,... and the new doctrine brings these operations into the joint realm."

Brooks, Clinton C. "Knowledge Management and the Intelligence Community." Defense Intelligence Journal 9, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 15-24.

"Knowledge management is the hottest management topic around our planet right now.... Intelligence Community organizations are in the information and knowledge business, so trying to more effectively capitalize on our intellectual assets by managing them makes sense."

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