Galen, Michele, Joseph Weber, and Stephanie Anderson. "These Guys Aren't Spooks, They're 'Competitive Analysts.'" Business Week, 14 Oct. 1991, 97.
Galvan, Robert N. "The Role of American Intelligence in the Global Economy." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 353-357.
This article is linked with Valero, "The Role of American Intelligence in the Global Economy," IJI&C 8.3/359-362. Galvan argues the "Pro" side and Valero the "Con" side with regard to the use of U.S. intelligence for business and industrial spying.
Hastedt, Glenn. "Seeking Economic Security Through Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 11, no. 4 (Winter 1998-1999): 385-401.
The author points to a "continued but limited role for the intelligence community" in the area of business intelligence. Nevertheless, there are "two functions that the intelligence community might profitably perform for the private sector that at the same time further government goals. One is to fill in the gaps.... The other is that of educating consumers to changes in macro level circumstances and conditions."
Helsper, Charles H. "Periodic Reports by Industrial Groups as Sources of Intelligence Information." Studies in Intelligence 2, no. 2 (Spring 1958): 47-52.
The author argues that the intelligence community needs to address "the systematic study of industry at the corporate level. The basic source for such a study is provided by the periodic reports of the corporate bodies themselves."
Herzog, Jeffrey Owen. "Using Economic Intelligence to Achieve Regional Security Objectives." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 302-313.
Since there is a "link between development failures and conflict, economic intelligence can play an important role in supporting strategies for regional security goals ... by identifying key facets of the economy which relate to political outcomes and by preparing for economic disaster or reconstruction."
Hoffman, David E. "Reagan Approved Plan to Sabotage Soviets: Book Recounts Cold War Program That Made Technology Go Haywire." Washington Post, 27 Feb. 2004, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
In his new book At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War, Thomas C. Reed, a former Air Force secretary who served in the National Security Council from January 1982 to June 1983, says that President Reagan approved a CIA plan in January 1982 "to sabotage the economy of the Soviet Union through covert transfers of technology that contained hidden malfunctions." This included "software that later triggered a huge explosion in a Siberian natural gas pipeline."
See also Gus W. Weiss, "The Farewell Dossier: Duping the Soviets," Studies in Intelligence 35, no. 9 (1996): 121-128; and "The Farewell Dossier: Strategic Deception in the Cold War." Intelligencer 11, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 23-28.
Hulnick, Arthur S. "The Uneasy Relationship Between Intelligence and Private Industry." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 17-31.
The author suggests that the time may be right for some changes in the heretofore "ambivalent" relationship between the U.S. intelligence community and the private sector. He does not see those changes going in the direction of the direct use of espionage in the interests of the American private sector.
Johnson, Loch K., and Amy Fletcher. "CIA and the Collection of Economic Intelligence." World Intelligence Review 13, no. 5 (1994): 1, 3-4.
This is a pedestrian, not especially informative broad view of economic topics on which the CIA might be focusing. The examples used seem off the mark for the areas they are meant to reinforce: e.g., to illustrate comments on CIA's "tasking" of U.S. business people who travel abroad with the example of Hughes Aircraft assisting in recovering a sunken Soviet submarine in 1974 does not advance the discussion. The article makes clear that such espionage is carried out for U.S. policymakers, not for American companies.
Knorr, Klaus, and Frank N. Trager, eds. Economic Issues and National Security. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1977.
Offers an "early" conceptualization of the relationship between national security and economics.
Kober, Stanley. The CIA as Economic Spy: The Misuse of U.S. Intelligence after the Cold War. Policy Analysis No. 185. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 1992.
The premise of those who see economic intelligence as a primary target for U.S. intelligence agencies "appears to be that international economic competition inherently poses a national security threat. Such an unwarranted assumption betrays a fundamental misunderstanding of economics and will distract U.S. intelligence agencies from their proper function: gathering information on genuine security threats. It could also lead to an unhealthy and potentially corrupt relationship between those agencies and American corporations. Finally, it has the potential to poison relations with other democratic capitalist countries."
Kober, Stanley. "Why Spy? The Uses and Misuses of Intelligence." USA Today Magazine, Mar. 1998, 10-14.
Seymour: "Focuses on intelligence agencies effort to combat economic espionage."
Lane, Charles. "Why Spy?" New Republic, 27 Mar. 1995, 10.
ProQuest: "The CIA's effort at economic intelligence gathering is a redundant activity that dilutes the agency's focus and stretches its resources."
Lawlor, Maryann. "What Role Should Government Play in Business Intelligence?" Signal 54, no. 2 (Oct. 1999): 30.
"While foreign governments share information that their agencies have gathered with firms in their own nations, this is not the case in the United States. In today's global economy, some U.S. business leaders are beginning to question the wisdom of this policy."
Lowenthal, Mark M. "Keep James Bond Out of GM." The International Economy, Jul.-Aug. 1992, 52-54.
Lowenthal sees significant problems in the idea that the U.S. Intelligence Community might play a more active and direct role with regard to U.S. business.
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