Abrahamson, Sherman R. "Intelligence for Economic Defense." Studies in Intelligence 8, no. 2 (Spring 1964): 33-43.
This article concerns "[t]he role of intelligence in the U.S. and multilateral [security] trade control programs." The U.S. program is one of "selective embargo which requires judgments on what to allow and under what conditions. It is these judgments that render the role of intelligence in the program a primary one."
American Caucus. "Question: Should the CIA Spy on Behalf of American Business? YES: Economic Strength Is National Security. [Stansfield Turner, former director of central intelligence, 1977-81. Reprinted by permission of Foreign Affairs (Fall 1991).] NO: Business Should Do Its Own Research. [Robert M. Gates, director of central intelligence. From a Speech to the Economic Club of Detroit, 13 Apr. 1992]." 1, no. 20 (21 Dec. 1992): 10.
Augustini, Jeff. "From Goldfinger to Butterfinger: The Legal and Policy Issues Surrounding Proposals to Use the CIA for Economic Espionage." Law and Policy in International Business 26, no. 2 (Winter 1995): 459-496. [Marlatt]
Borrus, Amy. "Why Pinstripes Don't Suit the Cloak-and-Dagger Crowd." Business Week, 17 May 1993, 39.
Borrus, Amy, et al. "Should the CIA Start Spying for Corporate America?" Business Week, 14 Oct. 1992, 96.
Brander, James A. "The Economics of Economic Intelligence." In Economic Intelligence and National Security, ed. Evan H. Potter, 197-217. Ottawa: Carlton University Press, 1998.
Burton, Mark. "Government Spying for Commercial Gain." Studies in Intelligence 37, no. 5 (1994): 17-23.
"[T]he problems associated with legal issues, cost-effectiveness, multinational corporations,and the increased risk of international conflict indicate that government-sponsored spying for commercial gain is not worth the effort."
Clark, Michael T. "Economic Espionage: The Role of the United States Intelligence Community." Journal of International Legal Studies 3, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 253-292.
Clift, A. Denis. "National Security and National Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions." American Intelligence Journal 14, nos. 2 & 3 (Spring-Summer 1993): 25-28.
Chief of Staff, DIA, from July 1991.
DeConcini, Dennis. "The Role of U.S. Intelligence in Promoting Economic Interests." Journal of International Affairs 48 (1994): 39-57.
Dedijer, Stevan, and Nicolas Jequier, eds. Intelligence for Economic Development: An Inquiry into the Role of the Knowledge Industry. Oxford: Berg, 1987. New York: St. Martin's, 1987.
Defense Intelligence Journal. "Economic Intelligence." 10, no. 2 (Summer 2001): Entire issue.
Click for the individual articles in this issue.
Dreyfuss, Robert. "Company Spies: The CIA Has Opened a Global Pandora's Box by Spying on Foreign Competitors of American Companies." Mother Jones, Jun. 1994, 16-19, 66-68. [CIABASE]
Dreyfuss, Robert. "Risky Business." New Republic, 5-12 Jan. 1998, 18-20.
The author discusses the CIA's National Resources Division, the use of nonofficial cover, Diversified Cover Officers, and collection of economic intelligence with the cooperation of U.S. businesses. The conclusion: "[T]he risks outweigh the benefits." Beyond the threat that such activities raise for American businesspeople overseas, "it is difficult to make the case that matters relating to economic competitiveness are serious enough to national security that they justify illegal, clandestine methods."
Ernst, Maurice C. "Economic Intelligence in CIA." Studies in Intelligence 28, no. 4 (Winter 1984): 1-22. In Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992, ed. H. Bradford Westerfield, 305-329. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.
This is an excellent -- it is tempting to say "classic" -- brief history of the development of economic intelligence in the CIA. It is interesting, although a minor part of the article, that writing in 1984 Ernst says the question of whether the CIA should provide assistance to private U.S. firms "has been a hot issue for more than a decade."
Evans, Joseph C. "U.S. Business Competitiveness and the Intelligence Community." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 7, no. 3 (Fall 1994): 353-361.
Fort, Randell. Economic Espionage: Problems and Prospects. Working Group on Intelligence Reform. Washington, DC: Consortium for the Study of Intelligence, 1993.
According to Surveillant 3.2/3, Fort presents a "comprehensive case" against the intelligence community providing commercial intelligence to U.S. companies.
Fraumann, Edwin. "Economic Espionage: Security Missions Redefined." Public Administration Review 57, no. 6 (Nov. 1997): 303-308.
The author is an FBI agent based in New York City.
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