GENERAL POST-WORLD WAR II

Deception and Counterdeception

Generally

Bagley, Tennent H. "Bane of Counterintelligence: Our Penchant for Self-Deception." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 6, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 1-20.

The focus here is deception and its interplay with self-deception. A number of cases are discussed.

Bennett, Michael, and Edward Waltz. Counterdeception: Principles and Applications for National Security. Boston: Artech House, 2007.

Peake, Studies 51.3 (2007), notes that this book "asks how one can be sure a source is valid and not deceptive and what can be done when deception is suspected and/or detected?" The authors' answers "appear in nine chapters brimming with historical precedent, theories, principles, models, case studies, and documentation." However, it is not an easy read: "Counterdeception has the imperative substance and narrative elegance of an army training manual."

BDM Corporation. A Historical Survey of Counter-C3. McLean, VA: 27 Apr. 1979.

Whaley, Bibliography of Counterdeception (2006), notes that Counter-C3 (command, control, communications) means deception. The study's data comes from 13 case studies ranging across several centuries. BDM was a beltway defense contractor, and its study "was sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency."

Defense Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (2006): Entire issue on denial, deception, and counterdeception. [Includes CD with Whaley bibliography on counterdeception -- see below]

Click for Table of Contents.

Managhan, Robert L. "Trends in African Forgeries." Studies in Intelligence 19, no. 1 (Spring 1975): 13-21.

The author offers a "brief summary of the activities of some ... of the individuals in our pantheon of forgers and fabricators."

Puchalla, Edward F. "Communist Defense Against Aerial Surveillance in Southeast Asia." Studies in Intelligence 14, no. 2 (Fall 1970): 31-78

"[T]he war in Southeast Asia has produced extensive and at times ingenious attempts at deception. Communist forces ... have relied heavily on deception to conceal their activity."

Sawyer, Ralph D., with Mei-Chu Lee Sawyer. The Tao of Deception: Unorthodox Warfare in Historic and Modern China. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

Peake, Studies 51.4 (2007), notes that the author "acknowledges the use of deception in the West, but he contends it is not yet as integrated into military thinking and planning as it is in China." This book is not easy reading. However, "for those who are concerned about China's historic and contemporary approaches to intelligence and deception operations, it is worth the effort."

For Arpin, NWCR 61.1 (Winter 2008), the author "has produced an enlightening study of the beginnings and the evolution of deception in Chinese political and military history.... The book abounds with examples of how a little deception or unconventional application can have a great effect on outcomes.... This book reads well. A dynastic chronology helps place the events in historical (Chinese, if not world) context. However, maps would have greatly assisted understanding."

Bartholomees, Parameters 38.1 (Spring 2008), notes that "the book is really a study of the history of the Chinese concept of unorthodox warfare." Basically, the author "interprets the tao of deception as doing everything imaginable to put your enemy in the most disadvantageous position possible before fighting.... If Sawyer's book disappoints, it is in the comparative scarcity of its analysis of modern Chinese military thought. Less than 30 pages deal directly with the subject -- although there are scattered modern references throughout the book."

Stanley, Zell. An Annotated Bibliography of the Open Literature on Deception. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1985. [http://www.rand.org/pubs/notes/2005/N2332.pdf]

Whaley, Barton. Detecting Deception: A Bibliography of Counterdeception Across Time, Cultures, and Disciplines. 2d ed. Washington, DC: Foreign Denial & Deception Committee, National Intelligence Council, Mar. 2006. [CD accompanying Defense Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (2006)] Detecting Deception: A Bibliography of Counterdeception Across Time, Cultures, and Disciplines -- Supplement to the Second Edition. Washington, DC: Foreign Denial & Deception Committee, National Intelligence Council, 2007.

Presenting this unique reference tool, Lawrence K. Gershwin, NIO for Science and Technology and Chairman, Foreign Denial and Deception Committee, NIC/ODNI, identifies it as an "impressive and comprehensive bibliography ... on the theory and practice of 'Counterdeception.'" He notes that this work "is more than a mere listing of sources: each entry includes [Whaley's] personal commentary, as well as an overall score for relevance."

From "Preface to the Second Edition": "The First Edition of this work ... listed 2,146 books and articles. This Second Edition ... lists an additional 298 items. Moreover, most of the original items have been revised, mainly by enlarged annotations."

Peake, Studies 50.4 (2006) and Intelligencer 15.2 (Fall-Winter 2006-2007), calls this work "a unique, extremely valuable, and often ... surprising contribution to the field.... Whaley's candid, incisive, and robust opinions ... will save the reader considerable time." With regard to the supplement to the second edition, Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), notes that Whaley has added 253 new items and revised 49 others. "This is another valuable contribution from the pre-eminent bibliographer in the field."

Whaley, Barton. STRATAGEM: Deception and Surprise in War. Boston: Artech House, 2007.

According to Peake, Studies 51.4 (2007), the author presents the "results of his research in two parts. The first discusses the history, theory, and ethics of stratagem, as well as counterdeception.... Part two contains case-study summaries of 115 instances of surprise in warfare -- 68 strategic, 47 tactical, that formed the basis for his work." Although this work "is well footnoted and each case has its own bibliography, it lacks an index, which complicates its use. Nonetheless, if one is after the basics of the subject, STRATAGEM is a good place to start."

Constantinides refers to a four-volume, unpublished manuscript of the same title by the author, and notes Whaley's "pathbreaking" effort to deal with "a subject of great importance not only in warfare but also to intelligence and national security."

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