The following materials are organized in reverse chronological order, rather than alphabetically, in the simple belief that this presents the material in a more usable fashion.
1. Fiscal Year 1995
2. Fiscal Year 1994
3. Fiscal Year 1993
4. Fiscal Year 1991
President Clinton signed PL 103-359 on 14 October 1994. CQWR, 5 Nov. 1994, 3191.
Palmer, Elizabeth A. "Congress Creates Commission to Study CIA's Performance." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 1 Oct. 1994, 2824.
The House and Senate adopted the conference report of the fiscal 1995 intelligence authorization bill on 30 September 1994. The legislation establishes the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community. The President will appoint nine of the 17 members of the commission, with the other eight appointments to be divided between the House and the Senate. Of the eight congressional appointees four are to be private citizens and four are to be members of Congress.
Palmer, Elizabeth A. "Conferees Agree on Bigger Role for FBI in Spy Cases." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 24 Sep. 1994, 2706.
House and Senate conferees completed work on the fiscal 1995 intelligence authorization bill on 22 September 1994. The conference committee "decided to clip the wings of the CIA, effectively placing the FBI in charge of all counterespionage investigations.... In return for the House's agreement to the FBI provision, Senate conferees dropped their objections to a satellite project backed by House members."
Benenson, Bob. "Senate Bill Gives FBI Power in Counterespionage Cases." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 13 Aug. 1994, 2370.
On 12 August 1994, the Senate passed a fiscal 1995 intelligence authorization bill. SSCI Chairman Dennis DeConcini "told the Senate that the bill authorizes $300 million less than President Clinton had requested." Over President Clinton's opposition, the bill includes a provision that "would require that the FBI take the lead on all counterespionage probes. The FBI would have to be notified and given access to the employees and records of an agency when that agency determines that classified information is being, or may have been, deliberately disclosed to a foreign entity." The bill also requires establishment of a presidential commission "to examine the roles and missions of the intelligence agencies in the post-Cold War era."
Clark comment: And thus did the CIA lose the authority to investigate its own CI cases in the wake of the Ames debacle. The FBI chuckled all the way to the Hanssen case.
Benenson, Bob. "Budget Secrecy Openly Debated as House OKs Spending Bill." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 23 Jul. 1994, 2061.
On 20 July 1994, the House passed the fiscal 1995 intelligence authorization bill, while voting down yet another effort to make the bottomline figure public. Intelligence Committee Chairman Glickman described the "spending total as essentially a freeze at the level of the fiscal 1994 authorization, 1.7 percent less than the fiscal 1994 appropriation and 2.1 percent less than Clinton's budget request."
Benenson, Bob. "Panel Approves Closer Scrutiny of Spy Agency Employees." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 21 May 1994, 1329.
On 17 May 1994, the House Intelligence Committee approved the fiscal 1995 intelligence authorization bill. The aggregate funding level is apparently the same as in fiscal 1994, approximately $28 billion. Among other provisions, the bill would "increase federal investigators' access to the financial records of potential espionage suspects by waiving privacy law protections for many intelligence community employees."
Benenson, Bob. "Committee Spares Budget Knife Despite Anger Over Spy Case." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 30 Apr. 1994, 1082.
Some lawmakers have criticized the CIA's handling of the Ames spy scandal, "but they do not appear to be taking out their irritation on the intelligence community's budget." On 26 April 1994, the Senate Intelligence Committee approved a fiscal 1995 intelligence authorization amount about the same as in FY 1994. The committee reduced President Clinton's request "by about 1 percent and defeated two amendments to increase the intelligence budget."
President Clinton signed PL 103-178 on 3 December 1993. CQWR, 11 Dec. 1993, 3406.
Bowens, Gregory J. "House Votes to Freeze Funding But Keep Amount Secret." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 7 Aug. 1993, 2167.
"After soundly defeating proposals to cut deeper, a bipartisan coalition in the House passed a fiscal 1994 intelligence authorization bill Aug. 4 that would freeze spending at current levels."
Bowens, Gregory J. "Clinton Accepts Budget Freeze, Vows to Fight Deeper Cuts." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 31 Jul. 1993, 2077.
In a letter to HPSCI Chairman Dan Glickman, President Clinton said: "I will oppose any amendment on the House floor which seeks to reduce intelligence spending beyond the reductions already proposed by the committee."
Bowens, Gregory J. "Chairman Leaves His Mark on Bill That Freezes Spending." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 17 Jul. 1993, 1895.
HPSCI Chairman Dennis DeConcini said: "It's a freeze.... Spending levels are the same as last year." Bowens, CQWR, 24 Jul. 1993, 1973, adds: The NRO "took the biggest hits from the Intelligence committees. Although details of the cuts are sketchy, most of the money was reportedly cut from research and development of a new satellite system combining optic and listening functions of previous generations."
Bowens, Gregory J. "House Panel Reportedly Caps Intelligence Spending." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 19 Jun. 1993, 1588.
In approving the fiscal 1994 intelligence authorization bill on 17 June 1993, HPSCI "put a freeze on spending.... President Clinton had asked for a budget increase this year -- of as much as $1 billion, according to the New York Times -- so a freeze amounts to a cut from the budget request."
Jehl, Douglas. "Campaign Is Begun To Protect Money for Intelligence." New York Times, 14 Mar. 1993, A1, A28.
Jehl, Douglas. "C.I.A. Nominee Wary of Budget Cuts." New York Times, 3 Feb. 1993, A18.
Munro, Neil. "Budget Cuts May Erode Pentagon Intelligence Network." Defense News, 8-14 Feb. 1993, 34.
New York Times. "Cuts in Intelligence Budget Stay on Schedule." 31 Mar. 1993, A22 (N).
New York Times. "Spooked Over Intelligence Cuts." 18 Mar. 1993, A22 (N).
President Bush signed PL 102-496 on 14 October 1992. CQWR, 31 Oct. 1992, 3490.
1. "Senate Clears Authorization Bill But Doesn't Push Secrecy Issue." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 10 Oct. 1992, 3183.
The Senate passed the fiscal 1993 intelligence authorization bill by voice vote on 2 October 1992. "The legislation ... expresses the 'sense of Congress' that the annual intelligence budget total be made public, but it does not force the issue."
2. "Measure Sets 6 Percent Cut in Administration Request." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 3 Oct. 1992, 3068.
The conference report passed by the House on 2 October 1992 reduces the administration's fiscal 1993 request "by nearly 6 percent, or more than $1 billion.... The bill also reflects plans to reduce intelligence personnel levels by 18 percent by 1997.... Total intelligence spending, including tactical military intelligence, has widely been reported to be about $30 billion a year."
3. "Leaner Authorization Measure Emerges from the House." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 27 Jun. 1992, 1893.
The House cuts are 5 percent below President Bush's fiscal 1993 budget request. HPSCI Chairman McCurdy "said the legislation did not include proposals to restructure the nation's multiagency intelligence apparatus because of the extensive efforts by new CIA Director Robert M. Gates this year to reorganize his agency and other intelligence operations administratively."
Conner, William E.
1. "Congressional Reform of Covert Action Oversight Following the Iran-Contra Affair." Defense Intelligence Journal 2, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 35-64.
The author examines the legislative history of the Intelligence Authorization Act for FY 1991, "the most extensive intelligence oversight legislation in over a decade," to show that "compromise between Congress and the President can yield practical solutions to difficult, yet profound, national security issues."
2. Intelligence Oversight: The Controversy Behind the FY 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act. AFIO Intelligence Profession Series, No. 11. McLean, VA: Association of Former Intelligence Officers, 1993.
Surveillant 3.4/5: This was the "first significant remedial intelligence oversight legislation in more than a decade." It reflects a "compromise between Bush and Congress as a solution to thorny national security issues."
3. "Reforming Oversight of Covert Actions after the Iran-Contra Affair: A Legislative History of the Intelligence Authorization Act for FY 1991." Virginia Journal of International Law 32 (Summer 1992): 871-928.
Gumina, Paul. "Title VI of the Intelligence Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991: Effective Covert Action Reform or 'Business as Usual?'" Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly (Fall 1992): 149-205.
According to Lowenthal, this article examines the new reporting requirements for covert actions included in the referent act. The author argues that these requirements are "firmly rooted in the Constitution and in past Congressional acts regarding oversight."
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