Pickett, George. "Congress, the Budget, and Intelligence." In Intelligence: Policy and Process, eds. Alfred C. Maurer, Marion D. Turnstall, and James M. Keagle, 157-175. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.
American Bar Association. Standing Committee on Law and National Security. "Glickman Calls for Releasing Intelligence Community Budget." National Security Law Report 16, no. 2 (Feb. 1994): 1, 2, 6-8.
Remarks by Dan Glickman (D-KS), 27 January 1994.
[Clarke, John M.] "It's Budget Time...." CIRA Newsletter 20, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 15-18.
Edited version of letter sent to National Journal, dated 19 Oct. 1994. The writer states that the first Consolidated Intelligence Program Budget occurred under DCI Richard Helms, not later as Dan Murphy had stated in W. John Moore's National Journal article of 8 October 1994. Clarke was CIA Comptroller and later Associate Director for the U.S. Intelligence Community.
Johnson, Loch K., and Kevin J. Scheid. "Spending for Spies: Intelligence Budgeting in the Aftermath of the Cold War." Public Budgeting & Finance 17, no. 4 (Dec. 1997): 7-27.
Nelsen, Harvey. "The U.S. Intelligence Budget in the 1990s." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 6, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 195-203.
Although keyed to the intelligence budgets and philosophies of the Bush administration, Nelson's baseline conclusion failed to hold into the late 1990s: "If the current trend lines hold, the intelligence community will be little diminished in the tough fiscal environment of the 1990s. The technology dependent nature of the intelligence process makes significant cuts in the budget very difficult."
Pincus, Walter. "Clinton Approves Disclosure of Intelligence Budget Figure." Washington Post, 24 Apr. 1996, A19.
Smith, R. Jeffrey. "Making Connections with Dots to Decipher U.S. Spy Spending: Panel's Report Indirectly Discloses Details It Urged Keeping Secret." Washington Post, 12 Mar. 1996, A11.
"When a presidential commission recently advocated disclosing the total amount being spent by the U.S. intelligence community, it warned that 'the disclosure of additional detail should not be permitted' for fear of giving away vital U.S. secrets.... Buried in the commission's 151-page report, however, is a chart that -- to a savvy observer -- provides a striking account of previously secret spy spending and personnel levels for four major intelligence organizations:" the CIA, NSA, DIA, and NRO. "Extrapolating from the chart, one can see that the big spender of the U.S. intelligence community is the [NRO], which builds and launches spy satellites at an annual cost of $6.2 billion to $6.3 billion....
"The chart also confirms that the most secretive spy organization -- the [NSA] -- together with its various military service components employs the most people, a total of nearly 40,000 eavesdroppers and codebreakers. It appears to have an annual budget of around $3.7 billion. Although the commission never explicitly listed these figures, it said the NSA's size and budget are out of balance because too little money goes to improving its technological capabilities and too much (around 40 percent) goes to payroll. It recommended that the agency take some extraordinary personnel actions, including forcing more retirements.
"The chart also confirms that the CIA ... is considerably smaller than the NSA; it appears to employ slightly fewer than 20,000 people and has an annual budget of around $3.1 billion. The combined spy efforts of the military services and the Defense Intelligence Agency, in contrast, employ slightly more personnel than the CIA but cost a billion or so dollars less."
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