Intelligence Community Budgets


1980s & 1990s


Pickett, George. "Congress, the Budget, and Intelligence." In Intelligence: Policy and Process, eds. Alfred C. Maurer, Marion D. Turnstall, and James M. Keagle, 157-175. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.


American Bar Association. Standing Committee on Law and National Security. "Glickman Calls for Releasing Intelligence Community Budget." National Security Law Report 16, no. 2 (Feb. 1994): 1, 2, 6-8.

Remarks by Dan Glickman (D-KS), 27 January 1994.

[Clarke, John M.] "It's Budget Time...." CIRA Newsletter 20, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 15-18.

Edited version of letter sent to National Journal, dated 19 Oct. 1994. The writer states that the first Consolidated Intelligence Program Budget occurred under DCI Richard Helms, not later as Dan Murphy had stated in W. John Moore's National Journal article of 8 October 1994. Clarke was CIA Comptroller and later Associate Director for the U.S. Intelligence Community.

Johnson, Loch K., and Kevin J. Scheid. "Spending for Spies: Intelligence Budgeting in the Aftermath of the Cold War." Public Budgeting & Finance 17, no. 4 (Dec. 1997): 7-27.

Nelsen, Harvey. "The U.S. Intelligence Budget in the 1990s." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 6, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 195-203.

Although keyed to the intelligence budgets and philosophies of the Bush administration, Nelson's baseline conclusion failed to hold into the late 1990s: "If the current trend lines hold, the intelligence community will be little diminished in the tough fiscal environment of the 1990s. The technology dependent nature of the intelligence process makes significant cuts in the budget very difficult."

Pincus, Walter. "Clinton Approves Disclosure of Intelligence Budget Figure." Washington Post, 24 Apr. 1996, A19.

Smith, R. Jeffrey. "Making Connections with Dots to Decipher U.S. Spy Spending: Panel's Report Indirectly Discloses Details It Urged Keeping Secret." Washington Post, 12 Mar. 1996, A11.


Return to Budgets Table of Contents