The Attack on the USS Liberty (1967)

M - Z

Mucciolo, Aaron. "Less Interesting Than '60 Minutes': Recent NSA Releases Add Little to the U.S.S. Liberty Debate." Strategic Insights 3, no. 3 (Mar. 2004). []

"The NSA releases ... provide an incomplete picture of the attack. There are no transcripts or recordings of any communications before or during the attack and nothing from the Israeli boats at the scene. Furthermore, sections of these declassified documents are ... whited out in the transcripts and deleted from the audio. Some of these deletions seem to be references to communication channel numbers and other data that should remain classified, but at points entire paragraphs are missing." For the NSA releases see

Paseman, Floyd. "The Great Grafton Library War." Intelligencer 11, no. 2 (Wintor 2000): 51-55.

The author reviews the uproar in Grafton, Wisconsin, in 1987-1989 over the naming of "The USS Liberty Memorial Public Library."

Pearson, Anthony. Conspiracy of Silence: The Attack on the USS Liberty. New York: Quartet Books, 1978.

Constantinides comments that much of this book on the Six-Day War of 1967 and the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty is "unreliable.... Pearson's inability to produce respectable evidence further weakens his case."

Rodman, David. "Against Fishel: Another Look at the Liberty Incident." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 73-80.

The author expresses and explains his continuing skepicism with regard to "the claim that the Israelis knowingly attacked an American ship."

Scott, James. The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel's Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009.

Lancaster, Washington Post (12 Jul. 2009), finds that the author "stops short of a final verdict" on the charge that the attack was a deliberate act, but adds that "after reading this comprehensive and compelling account, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that Israel's actions were, at a minimum, criminally negligent.... Scott argues that the Johnson administration deliberately soft-pedaled the incident to avoid straining relations with an important Cold War ally and its American backers."

For Cella, Proceedings 135.10 (Oct. 2009), even though "Scott does not ultimately resolve why the Israelis launched so vicious an attack on an American ship[,]... he has definitively documented a story not previously fully exposed." Cella adds in NIPQ 26.1 (Jan. 2010) that this "is a captivatingly vivid account of the episode and its aftermath worthy of a careful reading."

Peake, Studies 53.4 (Dec. 2009) and Intelligencer 54.1 (Winter-Spring 2010), notes that "the son of a survivor" of the 1967 attack has produced a work that "is skillfully written and admirably documented, but it leaves little hope that the complete truth will be known any time soon." To Booker, Cryptologia 34.2 (Apr. 2010), "the author is simply focused upon proving that Israel knew before the attack [italics in original] that the Liberty was an American naval vessel" and provides no answer or theory about why the attack was made. He "frequently appeals to authority in support of his argument," but statements by top officials "do not substitute for hard evidence or persuasive argument."

Smith, Richard K. "The Violation of the 'Liberty.'" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Jun. 1978, 62-70. [Petersen]

Taylor, Jim. Pearl Harbor II: The True Story of the Sneak Attack by Israel upon the USS Liberty. Washington, DC: Mideast Publishing, 1980.

A pro-Arab group stirs the pot.

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Gen. ed., David S. Patterson. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968. Vol. XIX. Arab-Israeli Crisis and War, 1967. Ed., Harriet Dashiell Schwar. Washington, DC: GPO, 2004. []

A number of documents pertaining to the attack by Israeli forces on the USS Liberty (AGTR-5) are contained intermittantly in this volume between Document 199 and Document 258. Polmar, Proceedings 130.7 (Jul. 2004), says that this FRUS volume is "important," "well-produced," and "highly recommended." He maintains that the work "should answer any remaining questions" about whether the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty was intentional or an accident of war. This volume "provides what must be considered the definitive U.S. government accounts and opinions of the attack." And the conclusion is that "the attack was one of mistaken identity."

USS Liberty Veterans Association. "A Report: War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967." Submitted to the Secretary of the Army in his capacity as Executive Agent for the Secretary of Defense, June 8, 2005. [ or]

This 34-page report concludes: "The USS Liberty Veterans Association, Inc. respectfully insists that the Secretary of the Army convene an investigatory body to undertake the complete investigation that should have been carried out thirty-eight years ago."

Walsh, David C. "Friendless Fire?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129.6 (Jun. 2003), 58-64.

This article basically focuses on refuting the conclusions of A. Jay Cristol, The Liberty Incident (2002).

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