GENERAL POST-WORLD WAR II

1960s

The Attack on the USS Liberty (1967)

E - L

Ennes, James M., Jr. Assault on the "Liberty": The True Story of the Israeli Attack on an American Intelligence Ship. New York: Random House, 1979.

According to Petersen, "Ennes, an officer aboard the Liberty at the time, questions the official explanation attributing the incident to a mistake and ascribes to the Israelis the motive of preventing the ship from monitoring the course of the war." Constantinides notes that Ennes "has nothing solid on the motive of the Israeli attack" and, therefore, "can only offer his own hypothesis."

Ennes, James M., Jr. "Israeli Attack on U.S. Ship Reveals Failure of C3." Defense Electronics, Oct. 1981, 60-62 ff. [Petersen]

Ennes, James M., Jr. "Israel's Attack on the USS Liberty : Cracks in the 25-Year Cover-Up." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Jun. 1992, 52-53.

Ennes, James M. "National Security Agency Documents on Attack on USS Liberty Prove What?" Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Sep. 2003, 25.

"Instead of releasing transcripts of the attack itself,... the National Security Agency (NSA) [has] released signals intelligence transcripts collected after the attack -- radio messages from helicopter pilots who came out afterward to clean up. What a disappointment. We had hoped for some of the communications we know took place between the Israeli jet pilots and their headquarters, but those were not released."

Fishel, Reverdy S. "The Attack on the Liberty: An 'Accident?'" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 345-352.

This article ostensibly deals with Davis Rodman's review in IJI&C 7.4 of Loftus and Aarons' The Secret War Against the Jews. Beyond that, however, Fishel uses the article to restate the case for a planned and deliberate attack by the Israelis on the USS Liberty. Fishel takes strong exception to Rodman's statement that the "most credible" explanation of the attack is that it was an "accident": "In fact, Israel's assault on the Liberty was as accidental as Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor." Fishel calls Loftus and Aarons' book, "a collection of preposterous and demonstrably false theories and allegations. With regard to the Liberty attack, the only significant detail they get right is that it was deliberate."

David Rodman, "Against Fishel: Another Look at the Liberty Incident," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 73-80. The author expresses and explains his continuing skepticism with regard to "the claim that the Israelis knowingly attacked an American ship."

[Gerhard, William D.] "Special Issue: USS Liberty." Cryptolog 17, no. 3 (Jun. 1996): 2-5, 8-11.

"William D. Gerhard, National Security Agency, wrote a factual account of the outrage, using the sources at his command. The report was released as a special history report SRH-259. CRYPTOLOG printed this report in a special issue, July 1984, shortly after it became available. We reprint this document now, in memory of our fallen comrades."

Guttman, Nathan. "U.S. Agency Confirms Sinking of USS Liberty Was Accident." Haaretz (Tel Aviv), 9 Jul. 2003. [http://www.haaretzdaily.com]

Documents released by NSA "support Israel's version" of the attack on the USS Liberty during the 1967 war. The NSA "transcript of conversations held by two Israeli Air Force helicopter pilots who were hovering over the Liberty as it was sinking ... confirm Israel's claim that the sinking of the ship ... was a tragic error."

Gwertzman, Bernard. "Israeli Payment to Close the Book on '67 Attack on Department of the Navy Vessel." New York Times, 19 Dec. 1980,. A1, A4.

Hounam, Peter. Operation Cyanide: Why the Bombing of the USS Liberty Nearly Caused World War III.  London:  Vision, 2003. 

To Peake, Studies 47.3, the author "is persuasive when it comes to the argument that the attack was deliberate.  But when he attempts to explain why Israel attacked a ship flying a big American flag, he strains credibility.... Hounam claims that Operation Cyanide was a 'clandestine CIA and Mossad plan to foment the Six Day War and guarantee an overwhelming victory for Israel.'  And, he asserts, the outcome nearly caused a nuclear war between the super powers.  Hounam identifies the sources for his facts but not his conclusions, which he admits are speculative."

Jacobsen, Walter L. [LTCDR/USN] "A Juridical Examination of the Israeli Attack on The U.S.S. Liberty." Naval Law Review (Winter 1986), 1-52. [Bamford2]

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