POST-COLD WAR

From the 1990s

Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Operations

A - E

Aid, Matthew M.

1. "International Peacekeeping Operations: The Intelligence Challenge for America in the 21st Century." In Peacekeeping Intelligence: Emerging Concepts for the Future, eds. Ben de Jong, Wies Platje, and Robert David Steele, 139-156. Oakton, VA: OSS International Press, 2003.

2. "SIGINT and Peacekeeping: The Untapped Intelligence Resource." In Peacekeeping Intelligence: New Players, Extended Boundaries, eds. David Carment and Martin Rudner, 41-57. London: Routledge, 2006.

Allen, Robert J. "Intelligence Support for Peace Operations." In Intelligence for Multilateral Decision and Action, ed. Russell G. Swenson. Washington, DC: Joint Military Intelligence College, 1997.

Best, Richard A., Jr. Peacekeeping: Intelligence Requirements. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1994.

Carment, David, and Martin Rudner, eds. Peacekeeping Intelligence: New Players, Extended Boundaries. London: Routledge, 2006.

To Peake, Studies 51.1 (Mar. 2007), while they may define the problems well, none of the 14 contributions to this work offer practical solutions to solving the complex nature of the relationship between UN peacekeeping operations and their use of intelligence.

Charters, David A. Out of the Closet: Intelligence Support for Post-Modernist Peacekeeping. The Pearson Papers, No. 4. Cornwallis, Nova Scotia: The Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Centre, 1999.

Cline, Lawrence E. "Operational Intelligence in Peace Enforcement and Stability Operations." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 179-194.

"Significant advances have emerged in intelligence support for [multinational] stability operations.... Importantly, the release of information to other countries ... has ... become easier." Although difficulties still exist, "perhaps the major improvement in intelligence support for stability operations has been the recognition and acceptance of the importance of intelligence in these missions."

Constantine, G. Ted. Intelligence Support to Humanitarian-Disaster Relief Operations: An Intelligence Monograph. Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, December 1995.

The author's key findings are: (1) "Both policymakers and operators expressed a need for significantly greater intelligence on humanitarian emergencies issues"; and (2) "The Intelligence Community's level of commitment to providing intelligence for disaster relief operations is uneven and, with few exceptions, not commensurate with expressed consumer needs."

de Jong, Ben, Wies Platje, and Robert David Steele, eds. Peacekeeping Intelligence: Emerging Concepts for the Future. Oakton, VA: OSS International Press, 2003.

A. Walter Dorn, "Intelligence at UN Headquarters? The Information and Research Unit and the Intervention in Eastern Zaire 1996," Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 3 (Sep. 2005): 462/fn. 4, refers to this work as a "compilation of papers on peacekeeping intelligence, including 'seminal past publications' (starting from 1994)."

DeMars, William E. "Hazardous Partnership: NGOs and United States Intelligence in Small Wars." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 14, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 193-222.

"The convergence of NGOs and U.S. intelligence at the crossroads of small wars has rarely been ... harmonious.... Despite serious efforts in the 1990s to institutionalize it, the relationship has remained hazardous for all the partners -- NGOs, American intelligence, and the warriors themselves."

Dorn, A. Walter. "The Cloak and the Blue Beret: Limitations on Intelligence in UN Peacekeeping." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 414-447.

"Analyzed information of both a secret and open nature (i.e., intelligence) is required in UN peacekeeping operations. Yet, severe limits and many shortcomings impede the present system for information-gathering, analysis, and dissemination."

Dorn, A. Walter. "Intelligence at UN Headquarters? The Information and Research Unit and the Intervention in Eastern Zaire 1996." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 3 (Sep. 2005): 440-465.

The Information and Research (I&R) Unit was part of the Situation Centre of the UN's Department of Peacekeeping Operations from 1993 to 1999. Here, the author looks at the unit's efforts to report on the situation in Eastern Zaire in late 1996. He concludes that the unit "proved that intelligence was extremely important to understanding the fast-moving currents of the Eastern Zaire crisis.... A better appreciation of intelligence, its uses and pitfalls, would benefit the UN."

Dorn, A. Walter. "Intelligence-led Peacekeeping: The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), 2006-07." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 6 (Dec. 2009): 805-835.

"With an intelligence-led approach the mission was successful in overcoming gang rule of entire districts, but not without initial opposition from within the mission, from Haitian officials and, of course, from the gangs themselves."

Dorn, A. Walter, and David J.H. Bell. "Intelligence and Peace-Keeping: The UN Operation in the Congo, 1960-64." International Peace-Keeping 2, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 11-33.

Ekpe, Bassey. "The Intelligence Assets of the United Nations: Sources, Methods, and Implications." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20, no. 3 (Fall 2007): 377-400.

"[A]mple evidence shows that the UN already has well-established information and analysis systems." Yet, there is "a lack of criteria and clear definitions of an appropriate intelligence system for the organization."

Ekpe, Bassey. The United Nations and the Rationale for Collective Intelligence. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2009.

For Peake, Studies 55.1 (Mar. 2011), it is a given that "the UN requires information and intelligence to perform its peacekeeping missions." However, "the UN's acquisition of intelligence is complicated by national secrecy issues. Whether the complex considerations described by Ekpe are a necessary prerequisite for dealing with these issues is unclear."

Eriksson, Pär. "Intelligence in Peacekeeping Operations." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 1-18.

The author, drawing on the Swedish peacekeeping experience, focuses on operational/tactical level intelligence. He notes that the "UN's systems for intelligence management are weak in that the organization actually relies on being supplied with intelligence collected by the great powers." Eriksson argues that in the most dangerous situations, "the peacekeeping organizations should assume the right to carry out intelligence operations by almost any suitable method," in the interest of guaranteeing the security of the forces it has placed at risk.

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