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George, Roger Z. "Meeting 21st Century Transnational Challenges: Building a Global Intelligence Paradigm." Studies in Intelligence 51, no. 3 (2007): 1-9. []

'[T]he dominant intelligence paradigm for the past half century" has been one of developing "critical information through a national, classified system of collection and analysis. This paradigm has been effective in organizing US intelligence ... for what have been largely state-centric challenges." However, "many post-Cold War and post-9/11 challenges raise questions about the effectiveness of the traditional intelligence paradigm." This article provides "a description of a new way of thinking about intelligence collaboration that is designed to leverage open sources, multi-disciplinary and multi-national sources of expertise, and pooled international resources."

Gill, Peter.

1. "Securing the Globe: Intelligence and the Post-9/11 Shift from 'Liddism' to 'Drainism.'" Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 3 (Autumn 2004): 467-489.

This article considers "[c]hanges since 9/11 in law, doctrine, the intelligence process ... and oversight" with regard to the security intelligence agencies, and concludes "that there is a danger of the rebirth of independent security states."

2. "Security Intelligence and Human Rights: Illuminating the 'Heart of Darkness'?" Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 1 (Feb. 2009): 78-102.

This article discusses the "changed context [over the past two decades] for security intelligence; the place of it within law, rights and ethics; aspects of intelligence practice posing particular threat to rights such as informers and interrogation and, finally, the challenge for intelligence oversight."

Goldberg, Robert Alan. "'Who Profited from the Crime?' Intelligence Failure, Conspiracy Theories and the Case of September 11." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 249-261.

The author argues that there is a "symbiotic relationship between intelligence failure and conspiracy thinking." He "outlines the conspiracy theories of left and right" raised in the wake of the intelligence failure of September 11, 2001. U.S. "government authorities validated their opponents' plot-making by defending themselves with their own cries of conspiracy."

Gormely, Dennis M. "The Limits of Intelligence: Iraq's Lessons." Survival 46, no. 3 (Autumn 2004): 7-28.

Gup, Ted. Nation of Secrets: The Threat to Democracy and the American Way of Life. New York: Doubleday, 2007.

Peake, Studies 51.4 (2007), notes that the author's "central theme is excessive government secrecy and inadequate transparency.... There is little new in the book. The cases and examples he summarizes have all been written about elsewhere.... As to the CIA, he is, inter alia, upset with its classification authority, dislikes its cover regulations, and is furious with its publication review policy."

Hagood, Wesley O. "Overcoming Barriers to Effective Collaboration." Defense Intelligence Journal 16, no. 2 (2007): 121-138.

The author suggests that collaboration within the Intelligence Community (IC) involves "people, process, technology, and infrastructure dimensions." He argues that "[l]essons learned from crisis operations can be institutionalized to improve the IC's performance at all times."

Hansen, James H. "U.S. Intelligence Confronts the Future." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 17, no. 4 (Winter 2004-2005): 673-709.

"Washington must invest wisely in the next generation of intelligence officers, give them the best training possible, set them loose to pursue the most difficult and dangerous foreign targets, and give them the total support that they deserve from the American people."

Harrison, Frederick. "Sharing Information Is Not Enough." Defense Intelligence Journal 15, no. 1 (2006): 25-29.

"To be effective, sharing needs to be done in a way that directly engages the people for whom the mass of information is being provided."

Hastedt, Glenn. "Public Intelligence: Leaks as Policy Instruments -- The Case of the Iraq War." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 3 (Sep. 2005): 419-439.

The author defines public intelligence as "secret intelligence that has become part of the societal debate over the conduct of American foreign policy." As Hastedt notes "[i]t is not enough to simply refer" to public intelligence as "leaked intelligence." He presents a "case study of orchestrated intelligence in the lead-up to the Iraq War," which makes interesting reading.

Hawley, Michael S., and Bradley C. Marden. "FIM: A Business Information System for Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 3 (Fall 2006): 443-455.

The authors discuss their "model of criminal intelligence.... The Fractal Intelliegnce Model [FIM], a new interpretation of the intelligence process, describes the interrelatonship between complex criminal activity and law enforcement intelligence."

Hitz, Frederick P. "The Future of American Espionage." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 1-20.

The former CIA Inspector General details a number of performance inadequacies in U.S. intelligence, but concludes that most of the recent difficulties "relate primarily to failures by professionals to meet the high standards of their calling." Suggestions for improvement are offered.

Hitz, Frederick P. Why Spy? Espionage in an Age of Uncertainty. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2008.

A Publishers Weekly (Apr. 2008) reviewer calls the former CIA inspector general's book "an entertaining primer on espionage: why it worked against the U.S.S.R. but flopped against terrorists, and what America can do about it." This "short, engaging book ... gives readers plenty to think about." Peake, Studies 52.3 (Sep. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.2 (Fall 2008), concludes that this book "is very worthwhile reading." Hitz misses when he suggest that analysts lack access to the Internet, but otherwise he "provides some very practical guidance for improving intelligence performance and for understanding the intelligence profession."

Hulnick, Arthur S. "Espionage: Does It Have a Future in the 21st Century?" Brown Journal of World Affairs 11, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 165-173.

Hussain, Imtiaz. "A Mexico-U.S. Security Community? Intelligence Without Policy, Policy Without Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 31-49.

The post-9/11 "Mexico-U.S. security incompatibility stems from both design and default.... [W]ith Mexico's heart, mind, and soul refusing to join the war against terrorism without first settling emigration and economic integration issues, this relatively minor country and lesser antiterror player ultimately holds the northern superpower's security needs hostage to its non-security imperatives."

Immerman, Richard H. "Intelligence and Strategy: Historicizing Psychology, Policy and Politics." Diplomatic History 32, no. 1 (2008): 1-23.

Jervis, Robert. "Reports, Politics, and Intelligence Failures: The Case of Iraq." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 1 (Feb. 2006): 3-52.

The author reviews the SSCI's Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community’s Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq, 7 July 2004; the UK's Butler Report, 14 July 2004; and the Report of the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, 31 March 2005.... The investigations [were] marred by political bias and excessive hindsight. Neither the investigations nor contemporary intelligence on Iraqi WMD followed good social science practices. The comparative method was not utilized, confirmation bias was rampant, alternative hypotheses were not tested, and negative evidence was ignored."

Johnson, Loch K. "Spies." Foreign Policy 120 (Sep.-Oct. 2000). []

This article makes some sound points about the state of espionage in the world environment in 2000. Among other thoughts, Johnson sees a continuing need for espionage: "In a strategic landscape plagued by still greater uncertainties, the need to know not only endures but grows."

He expresses doubts about any growth in real cooperation among intelligence services: "Barring the dissolution of the current system of nation-states and the establishment of full-fledged global governance, intelligence-sharing relationships will remain significantly constrained by divergent policy interests, the fear of turncoats inside an ally's government, and the general need for secrecy." As for economic intelligence gaining preeminence in the spying business, Johnson suggests: "[W]hen it comes to the security agenda of most intelligence services, commerce continues to take a back seat to direct threats to national survival."

Kahn, David. "How Good Intelligence Falls on Deaf Ears." New York Times, 27 Mar. 2004. []

"Intelligence will always be incomplete; it will often run counter to what people want it to say. Leaders, however, are paid to overcome these obstacles. They can only lead when they deal with reality -- and then take steps to help us plan for the worst."

Lahneman, William J. "Is a Revolution in Intelligence Affairs Occurring?" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 1-17.

The author believes it is possible to make "a plausible case that a revolution in Intelligence Affairs is occurring.... One thing appears clear: arguments that little or no intelligence reform is required appear to miss the mark."

Lahneman, William J. "Knowledge-Sharing in the Intelligence Community after 9/11." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 4 (Winter 2004-2005): 614-633.

Lahneman, William J. "Outsourcing the IC's Stovepipes?" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 4 (Winter 2003-2004): 573-593.

"[T]he vast majority of collection activities should be considered as potential outsourcing candidates.... [P]roduction and dissemination should not be outsourced.... Given the IC's stovepipes, and the general pessimism about the IC's ability to solve this problem internally, implementing large-scale outsourcing efforts now would be premature." However, some limited efforts might provide a useful experience.

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