POST-COLD WAR

1990s

General

Q - Z

Riemann, Robert H. "The Challenge of Glasnost for Western Intelligence." Parameters 20, no. 4 (1990): 85-94.

Robinson, Clarence A., Jr. "Intelligence Community Recasts Roles, Confronts Myriad Threats." Signal, Aug. 1994, 21 ff. [http://www.us.net/signal]

Runde, Carl P., and G. Voss, eds. Intelligence and the New World Order: Former Cold War Adversaries Look Towards the Twenty-first Century. London: International Freedom Foundation, 1992.

Surveillant 3.4/5 describes this as a collection of papers, some of which are by U.S. intelligence figures, including William Colby, Theodore Shackley, and George Carver. A list of topics is included. For I&NS 8.4, the book is a "mixed bag. Some of its papers ... provide a bran-tub of hawkish assertions.... [There are] glimpses of International Freedom Foundation's ideology.... Most of the book is of a different stamp." This is a "good American overview," but there is "no British perspective."

Sale, Richard. Clinton's Secret Wars: The Evolution of a Commander in Chief. New York: St. Martins, 2009

According to Matthew P., Studies 55.2 (Jun. 2011), the author argues that President Bill Clinton's "use of covert action[] show[s] that Clinton was more proactive and resolute in dealing with foreign policy crises than his critics have allowed." Although the reviewer does not believe Sale succeeds in making this case, he "does add to public understanding of some of the lesser-known foreign policy options available and how the first president to take office after the Cold War used them." Sale's "effusive language ... repeatedly detract[s] from the more interesting material on creative foreign policy options."

Stanton, John.  "U.S. Wants Customer-Friendly Spies."  National Defense, Mar. 1999, 22-23.

Seymour: "Briefly discusses the intelligence community's information gathering priorities, budget, spending plan, and human assets and how these are affecting the community as it tries to accomodate new demands."

Studeman, William O. [ADM/USN (Ret.)] "Leading Intelligence Along the Byways of Our Future: Acquiring C4ISR Architectures for the 21st Century." Defense Intelligence Journal 7, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 47-65.

"[A] focus on technology and the complex architecture requirements says that there is much to do to prepare the Intelligence Community for the complexities of national support and combat in the information age."

Taylor, Stan A., and Theodore J. Ralston. "The Role of Intelligence in Crisis Management." In Avoiding War: Problems of Crisis Management, ed. Alexander L. George, 395-412. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991.

Toffler, Alvin, and Heidi Toffler. "Powershift: The World's Most Dangerous Brain Drains." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 5, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 329-331.

Travers, Russ. "The Coming Intelligence Failure: A Blueprint For Survival." Studies in Intelligence (1997): 35-43.

In retrospect, this was an almost prophetic article: "[I]f we are going to try to fix an IC that is ill-equipped to analyze the complexities of today's world, we should start soon. The kind of restructuring that is required will take a huge short-term toll on our effectiveness, and it will take a substantial time for the dust to settle.... Either we fix it now in hopes of being in a position to support America's intelligence needs at the beginning of the new millennium, or we fix it later -- under the cloud of failure."

Wallop, Malcolm. "Congressional Perspective: Intelligence for a Purpose." Comparative Strategy 14 (1995): 421, 423-424.

The author was a U.S. Senator (R-WY) when this was written.

Wark, Wesley K., ed.

1. "The Future of Espionage." Queen's Quarterly 100, no. 2 (Summer 1993): Entire issue.

Thornton, I&NS 10.4: These articles "dive into popular culture ... to illuminate as many relevant 'angles of enquiry' into intelligence issues as possible. The result is a diverse collection of academic pieces.... All of the articles are comprehensible and enjoyable to read.... The imaginative speculations employed in some articles will not be to the taste of the purists within some academic disciplines, but the liveliness of the text and glossy presentation of all the pieces commend themselves."

2. Wark, Wesley K. "The Intelligence Revolution and the Future." Queen's Quarterly 100, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 273-290. Studies in Intelligence 37, no. 5 (1994): 9-16.

"[T]he relative sureties of intelligence targeting that were a feature of World War I, World War II, and the Cold War will be replaced by an explosion of new threats and challenges to understanding and control."

Waxman, Matthew C. "Emerging Intelligence Challenges." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 3 (Fall 1997): 317-331.

Traditional concepts of coercion -- the threat to use military force -- have been based on hierarchical decisionmaking, as with a state actor. However, the rise of non-state threats -- and other situations where there is a lack of well-functioning hierarchical structures -- suggests the need for greater flexibility in the employment of force by the United States and its allies. This will "require improved collection, coordination, and application of intelligence."

Weiner, Tim. "The Dark Secret of the Black Budget." Washington Monthly 19, no. 4 (1997): 31-35.

Weinrod, W. Bruce. "U.S. Intelligence Priorities in the Post-Cold War Era." World Affairs 159 (Summer 1996): 3-11.

Westerfield, H. Bradford. "American Exceptionalism and American Intelligence." Freedom Review 28 (Summer 1997): 27-36.

Williams, Robert H. "Intelligence Establishment Faces Cuts, Consolidation." Signal, Jun. 1991, 76 ff. [http://www.us.net/signal]

Williams, Robert H.  "U.S. Intelligence Community in Throes of Reorganization."  National Defense, Nov. 1995, 14-15.

Wood, C. Norman [LTGEN/USAF (Ret.)].

1. "President's Commentary: Intelligence May Be Bent, But Not Broken." Signal, Oct. 1997, 14.

This is an opinion piece by the AFCEA President. He acknowledges that American intelligence "must respond to changes wrought by the post-Cold-War era and the information technology revolution." However, he argues that the solution "does not lie in a brute force reorganization or in chain-saw budget cutting." Interestingly, Wood supports efforts to "strengthen the hand of the ... DCI," and notes that the "[k]ey to success in this position is more control over intelligence resources."

2. "President's Commentary: Intelligence Increasingly Relies on Symbiotic Relationship." Signal, Oct. 1998, 14.

The AFCEA President argues that "human intelligence and technical collection serve to fill each other's gaps. The important element is that the two work in tandem."

3. "President's Commentary: Intelligence Is at a Crucial Crossroad." Signal, Oct. 1999, 14.

In this opinion piece, the AFCEA President argues that because of the "sense of uncertainty" that characterizes the post-Cold War era, the U.S. Intelligence Community needs to "take the initiative in developing a broad, cohesive plan for national intelligence. This effort must encompass specific funding requirements, new sensor and collection systems, information architectures and centralized authority" under a strengthened DCI.

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